L written in the left margin
R written in the right margin
T written in the top margin
B written in the bottom margin
A added within the main body of the text
The entry of these indications is at the discretion of the indexer.
Field 4 (Liturgical Occasion / Feast Name): The name of the
which the chant is sung, given in a style and spelling similar to that
by Hesbert in volumes 3 and 4 of Corpus
Officii (CAO), but shortened to 20 characters.
For chants to be sung within the octave of a feast, ",8" follows the name of the feast. When there is a lacuna between folios of a manuscript, the word "LACUNA" appears here.
V First VespersAlso employed are the following:
V2 Second Vespers
D Day HoursField 6 (Genre): Identifies chants by type. The abbreviations used are:
E Antiphons for the Magnificat or Benedictus ("in evangelio")
H Antiphons based on texts from the Historia
X Supplementary chants
A AntiphonField 7 (Position): Identifies the liturgical role of a particular chant according to the system described below (all designations are aligned right--some computer programmes require the addition of spaces preceding the designations to fill out the three-character field).
AV Antiphon Verse
V Responsory Verse
I Invitatory antiphon
P Invitatory Psalm (when it is written out in full or in substantial part with musical notation)
M Miscellaneous (chants in this group include the Te Deum, Versus in Triduo, prosulae, and the Mass chants such as sequences
that are on rare occasions incorporated into the Office and function as Office chants)
G Mass chants (Graduals and their verses, the Alleluia of the Mass, and items of the Ordinary of the Mass)
In Lauds and Vespers, the antiphons for psalms are numbered in order: these numbers normally represent the position in the Office. Thus, the antiphon for the Benedicite is always "L A 4". When more than five antiphons are given for the psalms of Lauds and Vespers, every effort is made to determine in which position they are intended to be sung. When only one antiphon is provided for Lauds or Vespers and it is clearly the beginning of a series for that Office (as marked with a rubric such as "et reliquae"), that antiphon is numbered "1". When a single antiphon is intended to be employed with all the psalms of Lauds or Vespers, it is marked "p".
In Offices (such as Terce) where only one chant of a particular genre is sung, the position is left blank.
In Matins, the antiphons and responsories are given a pair of
by a period. The first number of each pair designates the
the second, the position of the chant within the nocturn. Thus
indicates the second antiphon or the second responsory of the first
When just one antiphon is provided for all the psalms of a nocturn, it
given a number that designates the nocturn, followed by a period and a
thus: "1. " (for the first nocturn), "2. " (for the second),
A Matins versicle is given a number that designates the nocturn in
it appears, followed by a period and a space.
The antiphons for Canticles are indicated by "M" (for the Magnificat), "B" (for the Benedictus), or "N" (for the Nunc dimittis). "P" is used for a chant to be sung during a procession. "R" is used for a chant that is sung as a memorial when the Office to which it is attached is specified; for example, an antiphon that is sung as a memorial after Lauds is "L A R". If the Office is not specified, "R" is used for the "Office" and the chants are numbered in sequence.
If more than one chant is provided for the same position, these are considered alternates and marked identically. When an Office requires only one chant of a particular genre and two are given, the position fields for both are left blank. For example, two invitatories for the same Matins service are both marked "M I ". An exception is made when several antiphons are given for the Magnificat (or Benedictus): these are numbered "1M", "2M" (or "1B", "2B"). Processional chants are also numbered "1P", "2P", and so on.
Chants assigned to categories for which there is no position as such
"E", "H", and "X") are numbered in sequence beginning "1", "2", and so
Some manuscripts do not indicate how the antiphons and responsories of
are divided up among the nocturns; for these indices, responsories and
are numbered in series on each liturgical occasion. When many
are given for the Magnificat or Benedictus, and when the assignment to
one canticle or the other is not clear, these are numbered in series
the Office designated as "E." In rare cases, when several
are provided for Lauds and Vespers and their liturgical role cannot be
exactly, these are also numbered in series. When only one chant
in a position that would normally be numbered in series, "1" is omitted
the position is left blank. Verses for antiphons and
however, are always numbered "01," "02," etc.; even when there is only
verse, it is numbered "01".
Field 8 (Incipit): The first few words of the chant.
As much of the incipit is included here as fits in the 29-character field with the last word completed:
"Gloria patri et filio et"Occasionally, an incipit may be unusually short because the next word is too long to fit in the field. In such cases, part of that word, ending in a hyphen, may be included in the incipit. Normally, however, hyphenated words are used only to distinguish otherwise identical incipits where the next word (i.e., the one that does not fit completely) is a differentiating feature, as in the following example:
"Ostende nobis domine in"
"Ecce veniet deus et homo de"
Socius enim factus es civium 006643bIt is sometimes the case that two chants have exactly the same text at their start but one continues with additional material. In other cases, two or more chants may begin with the same text and then diverge. For these chants, the incipit alone cannot distinguish between the versions; the user must refer to the chant ID number.
Socius enim factus es super- 006643a
The occurrence of one or more "alleluias" is not considered a change in text unless "alleluia" is the first word of the chant.
In order for functional electronic searching by incipit, spelling is normalized as in volumes 3 and 4 of CAO. The final authority (with a very few exceptions) is Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary (Oxford, 1879). Some typical spellings are as follows:
bracchium caelum genetrixA full list of CANTUS standardized spellings, including names, is available upon request.
exaltata excelsis sepulcro
exsultemus clipeo jucunditatis
hi (not "hii")
exsilio (not "exilio")
Hesbert's spelling Agathes becomes Agatha
Jerusalem (always spelled this way)
Alleluia (not "alleluja")
Capitalization is limited to proper names of persons and places, places of origin, and nationalities. Words that are capitalized include:
Sion Israelita Jesu Christe ThebaeorumWords that are not capitalized include:
Libano Chananaeae Sunanimitis Mediolanensium
Saba Nazarenum Jerusalem Joannes Baptista
Judaei Aquitaniae Hebraeorum Agaunensium
paraclitus magi dominus trinitasAn asterisk (*) marks a chant that is given only in incipit. Wherever possible the entire incipit is shown, with abbreviations resolved and the last word completed. Occasionally an incipit is too long to fit in this field; in such cases, the asterisk follows the last word that fits in the space.
auster pascha paradisi pharaone
agnum mater filium eli
sabaoth deus christianitatis
When the text of a chant consists of the word "alleluia" repeated several times, a lower-case Roman numeral indicates the number of repetitions, as in "Alleluia iii." When the melody for such a chant has its source indicated in some way, that information is recorded in the following manner: "Alleluia iv (In conspectu)." If only the beginning of the chant is written out, the incipit is given as "Alleluia iv (In conspectu)*" no matter how many times the word "alleluia" actually appears at that point in the source.
In the case of versicles, the incipit given is only the first half: that is, the incipit ends at the end of the versicle (or as much as fits) and does not include the response even when there is space for it. A versicle is considered complete if this first half is given in full in the manuscript.
Chants not in CAO are treated exactly as CAO chants with regard to
Sources representing the Roman cursus include:
C Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 17436 (ninth century, from Compiègne) [RISM: F-Pn lat. 17436]
G Durham, Cathedral Library, B. III. 11 (eleventh century, from northern France) [RISM: GB-DRc B. III. 11]
B Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, lit. 23 (eleventh or twelfth century, from Bamberg) [RISM: D-BAs lit. 23]
E Ivrea, Biblioteca Capitolare, 106 (eleventh century, from Ivrea) [RISM: I-IV 106]
M Monza, Basilica di S. Giovanni Battista - Biblioteca Capitolare e Tesoro, C. 12/75 (eleventh century, from Monza) [RISM: I-MZ C. 12/75]
V Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare, XCVIII (eleventh century, from Verona) [RISM: I-VEcap XCVIII]
Sources representing the monastic cursus include:
H Sankt Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 390-391 (“Hartker antiphoner,” early eleventh century, from St. Gall) [RISM: CH-SGs 390-391]
R Zürich, Zentralbibliothek, Rh. 28 (thirteenth century, from Rheinau) [RISM: CH-Zz Rh. 28]
D Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 17296 (twelfth century, from St. Denis) [RISM: F-Pn lat. 17296]
F Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 12584 (twelfth century, from St. Maur-les-Fossés) [RISM: F-Pn lat. 12584]
S London, The British Library, add. 30850 (eleventh century, from Silos) [RISM: GB-Lbl add. 30850]
L Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare, V 21 (late twelfth century, from San Lupo) [RISM: I-BV V. 21]
Field 10 (Chant Identification Number): If the text occurs in CAO, the first three characters of this field are "cao." The next five characters indicate the number assigned to the text of this chant by Hesbert in CAO. If the text is not in CAO, a three-character code followed by a four-digit number (plus applicable suffix) is supplied in this space. (The letters represent the manuscript source: "sar" is used for Sarum, "klo" for Klosterneuburg, "bam" for Bamberg lit. 25, "zwi" for Karlsruhe Aug. LX which is a source from Zwiefalten, etc..) These auxiliary (non-CAO) numbers are not carried over into other files (for example, the antiphon "Laudibus excelsis" has been assigned the number sar0072 in the Sarum index and aqu0294 in the Toledo 44.1 index).
When a text incipit is too short to make clear which of two or more chants in CAO is intended, and one can compare the music provided for the incipit with that of a complete chant, the ambiguity can often be resolved; if not, "can9999" is employed for such an incipit. Additional "non-CAO" numbers have been assigned as follows:
can0000 Chants with illegible incipitsA suffix, following the 7 characters of the chant ID number, is used to distinguish between a responsory (or antiphon) and its verse, and among several different verses used for a single responsory. If the responsory with a particular chant ID number ("cao7925", for example) always has the same verse, the suffix is designated as "a" ("cao7925a"). When the manuscripts surveyed in CAO give several different verses for a responsory, the letter that precedes each of the verses in volume 4 of that work is used in the suffix (but in lower case rather than upper case). Thus for the responsory "Aspiciens a longe," the verse beginning "Quique terrigenae" is "cao6129a", that beginning "Qui regis Israel" is "cao6129b", and so on. No distinction is made in the suffix (or concordance) between two versions of the same verse in CAO: "7091Ra" and "7091Rb" both become chant ID number "cao7091r". Verses for CAO responsories that are not listed in CAO are given the suffix "z." (The next "non-CAO" verse encountered receives the suffix "y," and so on.) The numbering for verses not found in CAO is not preserved across indices in the chant ID number field.
can9000 The Lesser Doxology, which serves as the second verse of a responsory
can9010 Te Deum
can9030 The Invitatory Psalm
can9040 Refrains associated with the Versus in Triduo
For the verses associated with the responsory "Libera me" ("cao7091"), it is necessary to use upper-case as well as lower-case letters for the suffixes. Thus, CAO verses "a" and "b" employ the suffixes "A" and "B" (CAO lower-case becomes CANTUS upper-case, and vice versa). Additional verses not included in CAO can then be assigned suffixes from "C" to "Z" but excluding "P" (see below).
For a responsory prosula, the suffix "P" is always used. No distinction is made in this field between several prosulae used with a single responsory, or between CAO and "non-CAO" prosulae.
Field 11 (CANTUS Identification Number): These 6-digit numbers (plus suffixes) have been created by CANTUS in order that the large repertory of chants not included in CAO (i.e., not included in the twelve early antiphoners surveyed by Hesbert) might begin to be cross-referenced across the database.
These CantusIDNumbers have been designed to follow both the past
numbering practices of CANTUS and the general numbering scheme created
by Hesbert in CAO, with corresponding numerical prefixes for each genre
Field 12 (Mode): The apparent mode of the chant.
This is normally a single number in the left-hand column of this field, with the values 1 through 8 indicating the mode in which the melody is found in this manuscript. In deciding the mode of a chant, CANTUS indexers take into account the final, the range, and any modal formula that may be associated with it, such as the verse of a responsory. Some sources indicate the mode to which they assign a chant; where this does not coincide with the decision of the indexer, the latter is what appears in the index.
A question mark in the left-hand column is used to show that the mode was not identifiable; an asterisk (*) indicates that notation was not provided. A lower-case "r" is used in this column to represent any of the simple formulas to which short responsories and versicles are sung.
A question mark in the right-hand column (following a mode number)
indicates uncertainty concerning the modal assignment. The letter
"S" is used in this column for a responsory verse that is sung to a
special melody rather
than to the melodic formula typical of its mode; "T" indicates that a
is written in transposition.
Field 13 (Differentia): This one- or two-digit number, or numbers and letters in combination, refers either to the differentia (the termination of the psalm tone to be employed in connection with a particular antiphon) or to the tone to be employed with an invitatory antiphon.If numbers are used, a single-digit differentia number is placed as the second character of this field. When tonary letters are used (as in Bamberg and Karlsruhe), a single letter appears as the first character. If a combination of numbers and letters is used, the differentiae are provided with a 2-character code: the final pitch of the differentia pattern folllowed by an arbitrary number (as in "G1" or "D2"). In some of the southern German and Swiss manuscripts, the system found in those sources has been adopted: these differentiae are indicated with a vowel (which represents the mode) followed by a consonant. The differentiae in the Sarum Antiphoner correspond exactly to those in the Sarum Tonary (edited by W.H.Frere in The Use of Sarum) and the numbering system in the tonary is used in the index. If no differentia is provided, an asterisk (*) appears as the second character.
The numbering of differentiae does not carry over from one index file to another as each manuscript has its own system.
For the tonus peregrinus, a "P" is entered as the second character.
The codes for invitatory tones also appear in this field.
the musical cues written over the word "Venite" that appear after an
antiphon, and also represent the tones themselves, whether partially or
notated. In most instances these carry over from one source to
thus the tone coded as HS in one file is essentially the same as that
HS in another. (The case is the same when tones are represented
certain numbers, for example, 3, 5, or 7.) Exceptions to this
are made for sources that have collections of tones that do not lend
to representation through the standard codes--Toledo 44.2, for
In the indices for these sources, the systems of symbols provided for
tones are unique. Refer to the "about" files for more details.
Field 15 (Liturgical Occasion Code): This field contains a
numerical code for each liturgical occasion or "feast." Sorting
on this field enables the user to isolate chants for the Temporale,
chants for Sundays, chants for a certain day in the year, and
so on. These codes are described in detail in the Liturgical
Field 16 (Siglum): A twenty-character field that
the manuscript or printed source. This field is useful when one
to combine several indices and sort them together. The
are modeled on the system developed for RISM.
Field 17 (Addendum): This field contains extra
not normally included in the CANTUS format. For example, some of
the manuscripts indexed by CANTUS contain a considerable overlap in
that is not represented in CAO. These sources have been
in this field. For example, "XVI" has been added in the
38 index to indicate a "non-CAO" chant in Cambrai 38 that also occurs
Camxvi, and a "non-CAO" chant in Toledo 44.2 that also occurs in Toledo
with "44.1" in this field, and vice versa. Note that these
are given only for chant texts not included in CAO, and refer only to
text of the chant, not to the music. This field has also
been employed in selected manuscript indices to indicate psalm usages
when they are specified.