Topic
 Key terms


What is research? Kinds of research.
 research;
qualitative
research;
quantitative
research;
empirical research;
evaluation
research;
expert opinion;
field research;
deductive
reasoning;
inductive
reasoning;
law;
theory
positivism;
causation;
association;
time order
criterion;
noise;
bias;
selective
observation;
nonresponse bias;
reactive effect;
Hawthorne effect;
explanation

Steps in research.
 unit of analysis;
crosssectional
study;
longitudinal study;
panel study

Reviewing the literature


Role of theory
 concept;
conceptualization;
idiographic;
nomothetic

Researchable questions


Operational definitions
 definition;
operational
definition

Validity and reliability
 indicator;
reliability;
validity;
measurement
validity;
construct validity;
external validity;
face validity;
internal validity;
predictive
validity;
replication;
fallacy;
ecological fallacy;
hidden factor
fallacy;
exception fallacy;
regression fallacy;
triangulation;
double blind

Levels of measurement
 variable;
dependent variable;
independent
variable;
interval scale;
nominal scale;
ordinal scale;
ratio scale

Sampling. Generalizability.
 population;
sampling;
sampling frame;
availability
sampling;
cluster sampling;
multistage
sampling;
secondary sampling
units;
primary sampling
units;
purposive sampling;
quota sampling;
random sample;
sequential
sampling;
snowball sampling;
stratified
sampling;
systematic
sampling;
theoretical
sampling;
representativeness;
sampling error;
generalizability;
cross
population generalizability

Measures of central tendency and dispersion
 descriptive
statistics;
distribution;
central tendency;
average;
mean;
median;
mode;
dispersion;
range;
standard deviation;
variance;
percentile;
quartile

Data gathering: surveys and questionnaires
 data;
survey;
questionnaire;
response rate;
closed question;
exhaustivity;
mutual exclusivity;
fence sitters;
floaters;
filter question;
sequence effect;
primacy effect;
recency effect;
serial effect

The normal curve
 normal
distribution

Hypothesis testing
 hypothesis;
ex post facto
hypothesizing;
statistical
inference;
null hypothesis;
test statistic;
alternative
hypothesis;
confidence level;
critical value;
acceptance region;
rejection region;
typeI error;
typeII error;
confidence
interval;
error of estimation

Ethics
 ethical;
informed consent;
voluntary
participation;
confidentiality;
anonymity

Communicating results
 empirical
research report;
introduction;
literature survey;
methodology;
results;
conclusion;
referee

Chisquare and t test
 chisquare;
t test

Correlation

Visual display of results: charts, graphs, and tables
 graph;
pie chart;
histogram;
lie factor

Experiments
 experiment;
experimental
design;
experimental group;
comparison group;
control group;
random assignment;
matching;
treatment;
posttest measure

Unobtrusive measures
 unobtrusive
measure;
content analysis;
erosion measure;
bibliometrics

Interviews and focus groups
 interview;
focus group;
intensive
interviewing

Other kinds of research
 action research;
case study;
participant
observation;
complete observer;
ethnography;
grounded theory
research;
historical
research;
primary source
