Network of provincial towns
Compact, walled, autonomous
Cheap transportation and mechanization (factory)
Economies of scale
Inflow of labour
Access to resources
Economies of scope
Information utility (computer)
Access to human resources
People know their place
Many-layered homes to accommodate separation of classes
People put in their place
Mosaic of spatially separated classes
People experience placelessness
Telenetworks of interest groups embedded in spatial diversity
Nostalgia wave affecting baby-boomers (born 1946-64)
- up to 1970: move for money
- post-1970: move for livable environment (or to simply get out!) Facilitated by interstate and trans-Canada highway networks. Decentralization of manufacturing via trucks. Other factors include rural cable tv (satellite dishes), air-conditioning and widespread college extension systems.
Trend fed by changes in production technology : aluminum and plastic materials, miniaturization and electronics, telematics (computers plus telecommunications).
America is deconcentrating
Three basic movements:
Similar trends internationally:
Denmark, France, Netherlands, Finland, Canada, West Germany, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Japan, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
In Canada, 9000 small towns (less than 10,000) and villages have 4.5 million people (1/5 of Canada's population) and growing (during 60s and 70s, grew 25% in each decade) - "urbanized" without being urban!
Growing cities, like Phoenix, Arizona, are assuming a "polynucleated" form: vast urban areas with no dominating core.
Giant regional shopping mall has become the hub of the new urban village.
Mall culture now dominates America's urban social and commercial life.
Old cities designed to maximize production ; new cities designed to maximize consumption.New metropolis will be vast -- 150 to 500 kms. across. Increase will allow people to live at different scales simultaneously. Subcommunities too distant for commuter movement. Pattern of 2010 may be more like that of 1910!
Deconcentrate from centre, but reconcentrate into urban villages.
New developments are products of new spirit of entrepreneurialism.
Privately developed condominiums with:
Private zoning reflected in use of restrictive covenants.
Condominiums today dominate the housing market: currently about 25% of new homes in U.S.; by 1990 probably more new homes will be condos, than single family dwellings.
Such "capitalistic communes" allow people to live as in small towns of a century or more ago. Inspired by Disneyland/Disney World and EPCOT.
Preference for life beyond cities revealed in polls for at least 20 years. Qualification now is that residence be within 50 kms. of city of at least 50,000 people.
Emergence of countrified city ("buckshot urbanization") - a loose collection of small towns, crossroads communities and developments strung along country roads.
Invisible web of new settlements encouraged not only by satellite tv, but by technology of septic tanks!
Easiest way to become an entrepreneur is to work out of the home - the "electronic cottage".
Reflects fundamental shift from large scale, bureaucratic enterprises to small scale, entrepreneurial enterprises.
Trend is toward commercialized nostalgia, walled cities with electronic security systems, enforced social sameness and a perversion of traditional democratic values
. Toward an Information-Based Urban System
Trend toward "any-time, any-place, no-matter, mass-customized" production system (S.M.Davis, Future Perfect)
The Emerging On-Line Economy
Re-emergence of the home as the central unit in society of tomorrow
Transformation of household space is particularly significant in the context of the changing pattern of urban space
Large-scale factory production ---> small-scale decentralized production (household)
Transfer of activities of factory, office and shop space to electronic household space (also implies offloading costs to the household)
Privatization leading to diminishing role of local government
Instead of imprisonment, monitor convicts electronically 24 hours a day.
New spatial organization by class:
Underground dwellings conserve energy and preserve the landscape.
Ocean surface/floor communities may be based on mining and ocean-farming.
Domed communities will enhance environmental control.
NASA plans a space station for manufacturing by early ???. To be commercially viable. One plan is for a 70 metre spacehab to accommodate 150 residents.
Lunar communities based on mining.
Arcosanti - brainchild of Paolo Soleri under construction (for years!) In Arizona. Unites architecture and ecology.
Botanic communities - bioengineered dwellings.
The Compact City - conceived by Dantzig and Saaty (in book by that name) - a vertical "layering" of neighbourhoods, instead of horizontal sprawl. Conserves valuable agricultural land.