As the years roll by more and more of these links will expire. I simply do not have the time to monitor them and seek alternative locations. If you wish to try then first copy the title, go to a search engine (e.g. www.google.ca), and paste it into the search box (first with quotation marks, and then, if unsuccessful, without).
The Thin Red Line by Robert Gibb
- Self-determination in the Information Age
- "Network Nation" Revisited - BA Thesis
- European Borders: History Of Space/Space Of History
- International Affairs Resources
- Geopolitics - Antidiplomacy: Spies, Terror, Speed, and War
- Canadian First Nations
- Provincial and Territorial Governments of Canada
- Redesigning Government
- The Micronations Page
- How the NII is like a prison.
- The Disintegration of the United States
- Left-Green Guide to the Net
- The Division of Territory in Society
- Battlefield of the Future
- Political Geography and the 21st Century
- Living in The Electronic Village: Phase II
- A System for World Governance
- Governance (Mini-Articles)
- Technonationalism and Meso Innovation Systems
- The Networked Nation
- Canada. Connection, Community, Content: The Challenge of the Information Highway
- Information Technologies And Human Communities
- Power Structures
- New Technologies and Democratic Communications
- The Effects of Community Networks on Political Participation: A Resource Guide
- Hyper-Archive: Geopolitics Of Cyberspace
- The Principles Of War In The 21st Century: Strategic Considerations
- Finnish Local Government in Transition
- How Will Cyberspatial Forms Of Human Interaction Challenge, Change Or Reduce Territorial Governance And Policing By The State?
- Machine Politics: Redistricting Algorithms
- Schoenbaum on Gue'henno, The End of the Nation State
- Internet as Hyper-Liberalism
- The Internet and Popular Democracy
- Why democracy is wrong.
- EcoSocialist Review
- The Alliance for Redesigning Government
- Seventh Seal - politics of all kinds
- A Primer on Criminal Geographic Targeting
- Strategic Assessment Center - Revolution in Military Affairs Paper
- Defensive Restructuring in the Successor States of the Former-Yugoslavia
- The RAAF In The Next 25 Years
- Principles and Programme of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany
- The Future of Warfare
- The Revolution In Military Affairs: Prospects And Cautions: Table of Contents
- Nations, States, and Secession: Lessons from the Former Yugoslavia
- The Wired State
- The Microstate Network
- Network Environments of the Future
- Models Of Local Decision-Making Networks In Britain And France
- The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life
- Molecular Nanotechnology and the World System
- Federalism: The State Of The Debate In South Africa
- How the Destruction of Political Will Doomed a U.S. Population Policy
- The Role of the Information Revolution on the Political Landscape
- Can The Westphalian Sovereign Paradigm (Nation-State) Survive In Cyberspace?
- The U.N. Plan for Global Control
- "Peacekeeping" Armies Train for Global Control
- Links for the Political Geographer
- Information Technology and Political Control in Singapore
- Structures of Nationalism
- Journal of World-Systems Research
- Air Force 2025 Final Report Home Page
- Alternate Futures for 2025: Appendix B
- Why The Environmental Crisis Needs A New Politics
- Irredentism and Ethnic Nationalism
- Designer Communities - The Spatial Impact of Molecular Nanotechnology
- Delanty: Beyond the Nation-State
- Ethnic Conflict: The Perils of Military Intervention
- Self-Determination in the Information Age
- Digital Politics
- Future Paths Report: Transforming Global Relationships for the 21st Century
- Canadian Politics on the Web
- R.D. Kaplan: Was Democracy Just a Moment? (The Atlantic)
- Introduction: The Politics and Poetics
- SmartGov -- Smart Government Homepage
- Social Policy: Grapevine
- INFORMATION WAR - CYBERWAR - NETWAR
- Joint Vision 2010 - Future Warfare Scenario - a pdf file
- Political Science and Sociology Online Publications
- The Five Thousand Year World System
- Virtual Seminar in Global Political Economy Internet Resources
- I-Bomb (Information Warfare)
- Strategic Assessment Center - Information Warfare Links
- A Theory of Information Warfare
- Yahoo! Canada - Government:Intelligence:Information Warfare
- Information Warfare, I-War, IW, C4I, Cyberwar
- World War II
- Persian Gulf War (Desert Storm)
- Information War (Anti-Capitalist Activism)
- Geographic Approaches to Democratization
- Toffler Speech to the Generals - 4/97
- Fernand Braudel Center Home Page
- World-Systems Archive Home Page
- Complexity, Global Politics, and National Security, Index - an online book
- Present At The (Dis)integration: Deterritorialization And Reterritorialization In The New Wor(l)d Order - Since the end of the Cold War, the political geography of world order has been the subject of much confusion, uncertainty and speculation. Strange new tendencies are emerging in the new world (dis)order. Old geopolitical blocs are disintegrating, previously coherent unities are fracturing, and once stable identities are unravelling. Simultaneously, new geo-economic blocs are defining themselves, emergent geographies of uneven global connectedness are taking shape, and new discourses of danger are re-writing identity and meaning in global affairs. Old Cold War word orders are giving way to new post-Cold War word orders. This paper explores this double dynamic of deterritorialization and reterritorialization in the new wor(l)d order through an analysis of U.S. foreign policy discourse. Beginning with observations on deterritorialization from the 1992 presidential election, we examine how fresh geo-political, geo-economic and geo-ecological readings of global politics after the Cold War are reterritorializing the surface of global affairs. Official and foreign policy community narratives of (1) the West versus the rest, (2) the best in the West, and (3) planetary ecological crisis are re-mapping understandings of global politics in the 1990s. Rather than championing any of these narrative maps of meaning, we point to an emergent global political geography of "tame" and "wild" zones in a differentially connected global informational economy.
- Nation-States and Minorities
- Integrative Global Action: International Organizations and NGOs
- Globalization and Local Conflict
- Infonation: Choose Countries
- Edwards--The Closed World--Chapter 1
- The Evolutionary World Politics Homepage
- Government Executive Magazine
- The Prospects for Electronically Enhanced Democracy
- The Geopolitics of Conflict and Accommodation
- Further Links Relating to Political Geography
- Military Strategy
- World-Nationalism: Normative Globalism As Pan-Nationalism
- Japan: The First Hyper-Power
- Thomas Homer-Dixon, Peace & Conflict Studies, U of T.
- Political Geography I: Theorizing History, Gender And World Order Amidst Crises Of Global Governance
- Canadian Policy Research Network-- CPRN
- Chinese Army Is Building Laser Weapons
- Strategies for Studying Causation in Complex Ecological Political Systems
- Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence from Cases, Part 1
- Environmental Scarcities, State Capacity and Civil Violence: China
- Scenarios - Russia
- Boundaries of the Contiguous United States
- Knowledge, Wealth, and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century
- Intelligence Program For The 21st Century
- The Asymmetric Threat to the United States of America
- Strategic Intelligence Papers
- The Coming Anarchy
- Technonationalism and Meso Innovation Systems
- Globalism and the Politics of Place
- Territory, Culture, and Biodiversity: The Black Communities of the Pacific Coast of Colombia Qualify Globalization
- Foreign Military Studies Office Publications: Ethno-National Conflicts: Research Sources
- Peacekeeping, Peacemaking And Peace-Enforcement: The U.S. Role In The New International Order
- Civil Society Computer Networks: The Perilous Road of Cyber-politics
- Canada in a World of Rapid Change: Future Choices and Consequences
- The Changing Role of Government (Third Annual Report on the Public Service of Canada.)
- Cyberwar Articles And Documents
- Modeling and Simulation and Information Warfare
- Jim Placke's Homepage, chemical warfare, biological warfare, nuclear warfare, NBC, NBC defense, WMD, chemical corps
- The Electromagnetic Bomb - a Weapon of Electrical Mass Destruction
- On Information Warfare: Deichman
- Millennium Shock: Negation of Political Geographical Boundaries
- Energy In The 21st Century: The Return Of Geopolitics?
- Military Information
- Defense and On-Line Economy
- Governments on the WWW - Comprehensive database of governmental institutions on the World Wide Web: parliaments, ministries, offices, law courts, embassies, city councils, public broadcasting corporations, central banks, multi-governmental institutions etc.
- It is the Local that Learns -- vivian Hutchinson
- Information Warfare Research Center
- Information, Combat Power, and the Digital Battlefield
- AUSA: Army Magazine - The Army XXI Heavy Division -- First Blueprint of the Future Army
- Information Warfare: The Perfect Terrorist Weapon
- twURLed World of "Information Warfare, U.S. Critical Infrastructure, Nuclear Espionage"
- Australian Peacekeeping in East Timor
- Intelligence Resource Program
- Intelligence Hot Web Sites
- Loyola Homepage on Strategic Intelligence
- InfoManage - Intelligence Resources
- The Intelligence Cycle
- The Joint Military Intelligence College Programs - The College, located at Bolling AFB in Washington, DC, currently is authorized by Congress to award the Bachelor of Science in Intelligence (BSI) and the Master of Science of Strategic Intelligence (MSSI) degrees.
- Tactics & Strategy
- Intelligence - links to some of the best sources of information relating to intelligence
- Music and Revolution 3 - Since its birth, the League of Revolutionaries for a New America (LRNA) has worked tirelessly to explain the root causes of the problems musicians and their fans face every day. We do this in order to make clear that the solution to these problems is to place the same computer technology that is fueling a deadly polarization of wealth and poverty into the hands of the public.
- A History of Land Tenure Arrangements in Northern Ireland
- Information & Communication Technologies and the Nation State - Includes some downloadable papers from a conference on this topic.
- Digital Politics 101 - Is there a new political paradigm lurking in cyberspace?
- Choice Military History Sites to Visit on the Web
- Restructuring the Space of Democracy - The effects of capitalist globalization and the ecological crisis on the form and substance of democracy.
- Birth of a Digital Nation
- Could a Keypad Democracy Work? - Through newsgroups, online polls, electronic conferences and various other forums, we can learn more about what our government representatives are doing and our two cents can translate into a highly valued insight for those who want to know how the public feels about current issues.
- Social and Political Context of Electoral Divisions - When looking at different electoral options, a final consideration concerns the spatial distribution of ethnic groups, particularly their relative size, number, and degree of geographic concentration or dispersion. The geographic location of conflicting groups is often related to the intensity of conflict between them.
- Intensive Agricultural Operations in Rural Ontario - Many groups have attempted to study the issues that put farmers in conflict with their neighbours and subsequently have put forth a variety of solutions to meet their own specific needs and interests. Nutrient Management Planning, an out-right banning of intensive livestock barns, changes to existing provincial legislation and the need for enabling legislation to give municipalities enhanced authority have all been suggested. However, there does not seem to be one clear-cut solution that addresses everyone¹s concerns.
- Governance, Policy, and Place in an Age of Technologically Mediated Interaction - Managing the Virtual Metropolis - This paper explores fundamental characteristics of ICTs, and considers how the deployment of these technologies offers the potential for significant change in the interactions between public sector institutions at a community level, and the various types of community groups, both geographic and virtual. Within this setting, this paper examines potential policy related ramifications of the widespread availability and use of ICTs both by public sector institutions, as well as by the private citizen, and suggests possible opportunities as well as barriers that these technologies present.
- British American Security Information Council - BASIC is an independent research organization that analyzes government policies and promotes public awareness of defense, disarmament, military strategy and nuclear policies in order to foster informed debate.
- U.S. Military Intelligence - This is an unofficial web site for researchers, students, and interested browsers. Certain locations or sections thereof may be closed to unauthorized use. Please read access warnings, if any, and abide by them. You should be aware that the government interprets your viewing of DoD web sites as tacit agreement to monitoring while connected to those sites.
- The Intelligence Community (US) - The Intelligence Community (IC) has been implementing substantial change in every dimension of its business. Some of these re- engineering efforts are based on IC-wide task force analyses of internal processes; others are in response to the recent geo-strategic and technologic changes in the national and international environment. Many of the examples show the IC to be forward-leaning and willing to take bold steps away from the limitations of the past.
- What do you know about... THE DEFENCE INTELLIGENCE STAFF - The Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS) is the main provider of strategic Defence Intelligence to the Ministry of Defence, and the Armed Forces and is also a key element of the United Kingdom¹s central intelligence machinery.
- Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin - The U.S. Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca (USAIC&FH) publishes the Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin quarterly under provisions of AR 25-30. Military Intelligence disseminates material designed to enhance individuals' knowledge of past, current, and emerging concepts, doctrine, material, training, and professional developments in the MI Corps.
- Problematizing Geopolitics: Survey, Statesmanship And Strategy - The concept "geopolitics" is a polysemous term that exceeds all attempts to delimit it as a singular presence. It is better approached by critically investigating how the concept is made to carry certain meanings in political discourse. This paper considers three different ways in which geopolitics is used to make meaning in global politics: (i) as survey, (ii) as a philosophy of statesmanship and (iii) as grand strategy. In documenting this performative range of geopolitics, the paper problematizes the conditions of possibility which enable the production of geopolitics as knowledge generally. The key problematic it identifies is a Cartesian perspectivism which operates through assumptions about the faculty of sight to produce the siting and citing of global politics.
- Corporate Democracy - The corporation has become the voter of today. Politicians have figured out that they no longer have to win votes with grass roots effort. They can buy votes by spending incredible amounts of money on media campaigns. These kinds of campaigns cost several dollars per vote attained. That kind of money can only come from the corporate world.
- Speech & Power (The Nation Magazine, July 21, 1998, p. 12) - The problem: Yesterday's free speech principles have become today's power principles--for the powerful. The problem traces back at least to 1886, when the Supreme Court first treated corporations as persons entitled to constitutional liberties. Ironically, a Civil War guarantee designed to limit the excesses of power was tapped to maximize such power. Thus, as Howard Zinn has noted, between 1890 and 1910 the Court employed the Fourteenth Amendment in nineteen race cases, as contrasted with 288 corporate cases. Much the same holds for the modern First Amendment, as the conglomerate likes of General Electric, Time Warner, RJR Nabisco, Anheuser-Busch and Exxon seek to shield their pecuniary propaganda. For more than two decades, commercial expression has received increasing attention and heightened levels of constitutional protection. In the past five years alone, corporations or business interests have been the lead parties raising First Amendment claims in approximately 60 percent of the free expression opinions rendered by the Court.
- Nile Basin Initiative - International cooperative body of ten Nile Basin countries. The site holds general Nile information (maps, photographs) an action plan, press releases, etc. The NBI prepares for a more permanent legal framework.
- Electronic Public Space Model - Computer-mediated communications are fast becoming an important part of the Canadian communications landscape. As with telephone, radio, television, and cable services, there is a need to set aside resources to ensure public participation as this medium develops. Such interventions in the past have resulted in the CBC, community cable channels, and a world class telephone system, all an important part of the cultural fabric of the country.
The following document addresses this need by defining and describing electronic public space, and presenting a model to ensure that Canadian communities retain some control over this strategic resource. It is a unique way to support the tools which will be essential to public participation in civic life in an increasingly privatized world.
- The Internet and the Abiding Significance of Territorial Sovereignty - More than any other technology, the Internet facilitates cheap, fast, and difficult-to-detect multi-jurisdictional transactions. This in a nutshell is why so many believe that the Internet "undermin[es] the feasibility--and legitimacy--of laws based on geographical boundaries." Dean Henry H. Perritt's essay is sanguine about the Internet's ability to facilitate national governance. But even Perritt appears skeptical about the efficacy of territorial regulation of the Internet. His arguments for the Internet's potential to strengthen national and international governance are tempered by doubts about whether regulation conceived in territorial terms can effectively govern Internet transactions. This essay attempts to alleviate Perritt's doubt. It aims to show that from the perspective of jurisdiction and choice of law, territorial regulation of the Internet is no less feasible and no less legitimate than territorial regulation of non-Internet transactions.
- State Criminal Laws in Cyberspace: Reconciling Freedom for Users with Effective Law Enforcement - With the proliferation of online activities in recent years, legal thinkers and the criminal justice system have faced new questions concerning the conflict of state criminal laws. These new questions have old answers; the doctrine of constructive presence has established a state's authority to prescribe an out-of-state activity that has in-state effects. Beyond the mechanical application of jurisdictional rules, however, there lie deeper policy questions concerning the fairness of subjecting computer users to multiple, inconsistent bodies of law. Cyberspace exists in all jurisdictions, and in no particular jurisdiction, at once. There is an apparent tension between the free flow of cyberspace and the sovereignty of those territories which it touches.
This paper demonstrates that a state may exercise criminal jurisdiction over online activities originating elsewhere and that such jurisdiction is appropriate notwithstanding the potential conflict of criminal laws. Online gambling provides an excellent example of how the laws and policies of different states may collide. In some states, gambling is perfectly legal and socially acceptable; in many others, gambling constitutes a moral outrage and is vigorously suppressed by authorities. Online technology has circumvented territorial boundaries, and authorities in anti-gambling states are learning that every personal computer can provide local residents a direct link to a glittering "virtual casino" headquartered elsewhere. This paper focuses on gambling as the controversial activity, with emphasis on the facts of a recent case in Minnesota. It is hoped, however, that the principles of law and policy delineated in this paper can be applied to other online activities that are legal in one jurisdiction but not another.
- The "Unsettled Paradox ": The Internet, the State, and the Consent of the Governed - We live, as the Chinese proverb would have it, in interesting times, at least for those who find questions like "What is sovereign power?" and "From where does the state obtain the authority to exercise that power?" to be interesting ones. How, if at all, will the communications revolution of the late twentieth century, in particular the rise of the Internet and a global cyberspace, affect our view of the organization of global politics and global polities?
Without doing too much injustice to the complexities of this most complicated set of questions, we can describe at least two divergent points of view. In one, the rise of cyberspace brings about the Twilight of the State, a kind of Wagnerian Staatendammerung. The institution of the nation-state itself, after a half millennium of dominance of the international political and legal arena, is relegated to the ash heap of history, done in--"disintermediated" some might say--by the increasing irrelevance of the physical borders and boundaries that simultaneously circumscribe and define its proper sphere of action.
The other view reports that the imminent death of the state is greatly exaggerated. After all, people possess an irreducible tangible reality, fixed in a material world and therefore subject to traditional forms of social control, including the entire legal apparatus of sovereign states. The Internet may well constitute a "revolutionary" technology, calling for different modes of state intervention and regulation; but just as the institution of the sovereign state adapted to earlier "revolutionary" communications technologies (the telephone, radio, television, and the like), so too will existing state institutions of governance and lawful control adapt to this one.
Dean Henry H. Perritt, Jr., articulates what appears to be an intermediate position. While he agrees with those in the first camp that the boundary-disregarding global network will produce dramatic changes in the international order, he argues that the institution of statehood itself will likely withstand this challenge. He suggests, however, that certain kinds of states, organized internally in particular ways that implement a particular vision of the source of their own power, will not.
- E Pluribus Connecto: Don Tapscott - Just as the Internet tsunami is causing turmoil and unprecedented innovation in the private sector, other facets of society are experiencing similar upheaval. In particular, our government, democratic institutions, and the state itself are in the early stages of what will be a dramatic transformation. The only question is whether existing governments will be willing participants or victims.
- Advanced Battlespace and Cybermaneuver Concepts - This article argues that the traditional perception of the battlefield reveals the limiting assumptions upon which Force XXI is built, that it is constrained by its three dimensions, and that it is most likely outmoded. Paradoxically, it is the rise of nonWestern warfare and the proliferation of advanced weaponry that together have made current "spatial concepts" of the modern battlefield obsolete. To be an effective military force into the 21st century, the US Army should start now to redefine the battlefield so that new operational concepts can evolve and produce the doctrine and materiel requirements that will lead to meaningful restructuring of all components of the land force. Without a new conceptual model, Force XXI will fail to take full advantage of the potential inherent in new and emerging technology, no matter how successful it is in developing technology appliqués for its existing fleets of tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, artillery systems, and aircraft.
- On Information Warfare - We are at the dawn of a new age, one that will have a profound impact on the way we live, work and fight. No longer is military effectiveness simply a function of delivering ordnance to target. The evolving art of "information warfare" offers the promise of an entirely different means of ensuring national security and the defense of national interests.
- Comments on "Information Age Impacts on Governance: Just at the Start of Something Big?" - Jerry Mechling has offered a panoramic, provocative overview of how the Information Revolution might change the trajectory of government's evolution. I'll respond in the same spirit of provoking debate, and will condense my comments into five broad predictions and a concluding anecdote.
- Political Geography II: (Counter) Revolutionary Times - The questions posed by the phenomenon of Newt Gingrich's "revolution" are questions involving strange postmodern fusions of information technology, economic power, multimedia-ted identity, and warped morality. Similar questions are provoked by that other defining media event drama of 1995, the O.J. Simpson trial and the ability of Simpson's million dollar defense team to re-present domestic violence and murder as racism and corruption in "the system." In keeping with last year where I sought to review emerging points of theorization and debate within a broadly defined political geography, this year's report isolates three different emerging loci of theorization which I am organizing around notions of techno-geographies, psycho-geographies and moral geographies. This report is an attempt to identify and gather together some of the emergent questions posed to us by the rapidly changing world we encounter in our institutions, classrooms, societies and media. Political geography today is less a distinct sub-field of geography than a gathering point for discourse on both the sharp and stealthy crystallizations of geography and politics found throughout our deterritorializing global modernities. As evident in Painter's recent textbook, there is a certain unease with the label "political geography" in these times of hybridity and globalization. Painter's book addresses familiar contemporary themes (state formation, citizenship and welfare, imperialism, geopolitics, social movements) from a critical interpretative perspective. The work is conceptualized as an entwining of traditional political geography with the critical perspectives found today in cultural and feminist geography, the goal being to further the blurring of these sub-fields. The end product is a robust and theoretically challenging work for undergraduate students, one which situates the questions political geographers ask at the heart of the questions asked by the contemporary critical social theorists in general.
- Post-Hegemonic and Post-Socialist Regionalism - Practically everyone writing today on regionalism argues that it is growing strongly in almost every part of the world. This conclusion is reached either by observing economic, political, and institutional developments or setting normative criteria for the development of a desirable world order. The standard arguments on the rise of regionalism mention, at a minimum, the establishment of NAFTA, the deepening integration in the European Union, and the growing economic interdependence in East Asia. The critical issue addressed is usually whether this development is leading to a more polarized or a more cooperative world economy and world order.
- Political Geography: From the "Long 1989" to the Millenium - The decade since the publication of the last review article in Geography In America on Political Geography by Reynolds and Knight has been one of extraordinary geopolitical transformation and change. The Cold War came to an end, the Soviet Union as a geopolitical bloc disintegrated. The threat of interstate nuclear war faded as an omnipresent nightmare in international relations. Yet new threats and dangers quickly emerged to take the place of those imagined during the Cold War. States such as Saddam Hussein's Iraq were seen as "rogue states" that threatened the norms of the international political system. As the decade progressed, concern grew about the rise of genocidal practices by extreme nationalists, global warming and environmental deterioration, and the dangers of nuclear proliferation in the wake of the decline of the Russian military-weapons complex. Fears about terrorism were stoked by a series of bombings in cities across the Western world, from Paris and London to Oklahoma City and Atlanta. New social movements forced questions concerning the politics of identity and lifestyles onto the political agenda, further extending the domain of 'the political.' Simultaneously, the globalization of financial markets, telecommunication systems, and the Internet were re-arranging governing notions of "here" and "there," "inside" and "outside," "near" and "far." With global media networks broadcasting news 24 hours a day and the Internet spreading a world wide web, the 'real' geographies of everyday life were becoming strikingly virtual as well as actual.
- The Internet: A Case Study for Global Governance - The Information Age presents us with new opportunities not witnessed before in international relations. The development of the Internet lends itself to a reassessment of the role of the state, and thus the concept of state sovereignty, in the Information Age. Is the Internet yet another nail in the state's coffin? On the other hand, is the state capable of withstanding the pressures that the Internet exerts? It will be shown that the state is still a key player in the Information Age, but that traditional models o International Relations are ill equipped to deal with the development of the Internet. This paper serves to present some of these arguments to defend the state's position, and to discuss a possible framework to further understand the state's role in the era of the Internet.
- Virtual Decision Making in Spatial Planning: Web-Based Geographical Information Systems for Public Participation in Environmental Decision Making - Current research examining the potential of the WWW as a means of increasing public participation in environmental decision making in the UK is discussed. The paper considers traditional methods of public participation and argues that new Internet based technologies have the potential to widen participation in the UK planning system. Evidence is provided of the potential and actual benefits of on-line spatial decision making systems in the UK through two real environmental decision making problems at the local and regional scale.
The paper identifies key themes developing in this area of Web-based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and provides case study examples of on-line public participation GIS (PPGIS) from inception to the final phase in a public participation process. It is shown that in certain UK planning problems and policy formulation processes, participatory on-line systems are a useful means of informing and engaging the public. This provides mechanisms for the exploration, experimentation and formulation of decision alternatives by the public in future planning processes and has the potential to bring the public closer to a participatory planning system.
- The Spatial and Temporal Diffusion of Democracy, 1815-1995 - The Spatial and Temporal Diffusion of Democracy is an NSF--Sponsored program using leading-edge techniques to uncover the relationships between democracy and conflict. In order to understand the techniques used in this research, one must be familiar with the different data sources we have used. These data fall roughly into two categories: descriptive and events. The former are the typical cross-sectional data that are familiar to many - objective measures such as macroeconomic figures and trade flows, and subjective data such as level of democracy or autocracy. In addition, we use several well-known events data series, including those on conflict and cooperation and military interventions.
- Refugees, asylum seekers and human geography - The level of change in international and national refugee and asylum law in the United Kingdom over the last ten years has cast a special light over the literature published in refugee studies. A decade is a comparatively short time in the academy, at least where publishing is concerned, so given the comparative youthfulness of Refugee Studies as a whole, and especially the geography/refugee studies interface, the question might well be asked to what extent have the authors, the researchers and the professionals been able to cope with these changes? In this paper I will be arguing that research into asylum-seekers and refugees has rested on an analytical and discursive separation of refugee studies into two discursive formations. One of 'asylum' and another of '(re)settlement'. This meaning of 'asylum' includes the international and national laws, policies and procedures that comprise the legal framework in which applicants claim asylum and also incorporates the global and transnational populations of refugees and asylum seekers trapped between and within states across the world. The discursive formation that forms (re)settlement holds a different meaning which includes: housing, health and education policies; local politics and social relations; and asylum seekers and refugees as class and gendered subjects.
- To be or not to be a region - is that the Mid-Nordic question? - In the discipline of geography a "new" regional approach is growing, and in contemporary Europe the region is playing an increasing role in both political life and other areas of society. The importance of the nation-state as a political unit decreases in a Europe that encounters more and more co-operation, integration and internationalization across established borders. Through the principle of subsidiarity, the European union intends to delegate the responsibility for decision making to the lowest level possible in the territorial-political hierarchy. This points towards a development that is called the "Europe of regions".
- int-boundaries archives - February 2000: Understanding of Frontiers - a possibly useful bibliography of boundary/frontier related publications.
- The Evolution of Untethered Communications - In 1994, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) initiated the Global Mobile Information Systems (GloMo) program to apply advances in high-speed computation, signal processing, and miniaturization to mobile, wireless, multimedia information systems. The GloMo program is intended to develop the technologies that will enable military forces to carry out communication and computing tasks free of tethers - that is, cables to power sources or telecommunications networks. The concept of "untethered" communications unites mobile and wireless operations.
- The Evolution of Concepts of Global Governance and the State in the Twentieth Century - The twentieth century is either approaching its end or has already reached that point. While that date of its termination is debatable, there can be no doubt that it has been, or was, a period of constant, sweeping, and profound change in virtually every aspect of life‹certainly including the realm referred to in the title of this paper. The use of the term, evolution, in this connection may be misleading, if we take it to suggest a steady, linear, unidirectional progression. That pattern of change may be discerned in some areas of concern to us in this conference‹for instance, in the gradual and uninterrupted shift from the "let nature take its course" motif of the old multistate system to the application of the principle of planning to that system, and in the elaboration and proliferation of international organizations from their skimpy beginnings to the present-day multitude of agencies. In most cases, however, the course of change has been rough, not smooth. It has entailed tension, vacillation, and competition among differing tendencies, attitudes, and aspirations whose fortunes in the tug-of-war have varied over time. What we have to study is not the inexorable unfolding of a new approach to world order but the messier and more interesting subject of the unending struggle to fashion a scheme for effective global governance from the welter of conflicting pressures and movements that has marked the twentieth century.
- Epochal Change: War Over Social and Political Organization - The United States must remain prepared for war, but not one understood by traditional perceptions of security. The centuries-old idea of "a struggle between nation-states or their coalitions over the preservation and extension o national sovereignty" is in danger of becoming irrelevant. Long-standing assumptions about warfighting, which include definitions of victory and defeat, threat entities, and the battlefield itself, are being challenged. The adversary, furthermore, will not necessarily be an emerging peer competitor, which we seem so intent on vanquishing by mastering the so-called Revolution in Military Affairs.
Our most likely adversaries will emerge from a process of human advancement, a cyclical shifting between order and chaos, which is at least a millennium old. Since the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, this process has been one of increasing law and order that led to prosperity for many Western nation-states, their public institutions, and their peoples. The cycle, which is the topic of this article, now may be shifting away from stability toward chaos, suggesting that the nation-state may be entering a period in which its usefulness as a concept for organizing societies will be severely challenged.
- The Importance of Maritime Chokepoints - Sir Walter Raleigh once observed, "Whosoever commands the sea commands the trade; whosoever commands the trade of the world commands the riches of the world, and consequently the world itself." Unimpeded sea lines of communication are as important to us today as they were to Raleigh, his peers, and their successors who created a mercantile empire that was sustained by the Royal Navy's control of the sea lines of communication linking England, its colonies, and its trading partners.
More than 80 percent of global trade still moves by sea, and the United States depends on the free and unimpeded movement of its share of that commerce. Further, with its power-projection land forces and seemingly unending international commitments, the United States and its allies depend on access to the seas to ensure their security.
The concept of unimpeded sea lines of communication underpins the very meaning of a national security strategy based on the twin premises of global enlargement and engagement. Yet one must ask whether US strategy adequately addresses the security of the various sea lines of communication and the associated chokepoints so essential to its own economic well-being and that of its principal allies. This article examines some historical and theoretical aspects of maritime chokepoints; assesses current issues and foreign policy concerns regarding their security, and evaluates US strategy as it relates to free access to sea lines of communication. The ability to guarantee an unimpeded flow of seagoing commerce remains for us, as it was for Walter Raleigh, a major geopolitical component of national power.
- Canada as an Intentional Community - The paper explores the concept of Canada as an intentional community. The genesis of the term is explained, the history and future of Canada as an intentional community is imagined and speculated upon, and the current situation of nation states in general is broached. Hopes are expressed for the usefulness of the "intentional community" concept in relation to the Canadian and global future.
- The Information Revolution and National Power Political Aspects-I - The rules of the game in international relations are changing, and these changes are closely linked to the information revolution. Since the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the aspirations of nation-states and their leaders have been the principal drivers in international relations. Throughout that period, the ability of those nation-states to achieve their goals has rested on three pillars: economic power, military power and political power. With the coming of the information revolution, the supremacy of the nation-state has been challenged. The revolution has affected all three pillars of national power, thereby altering the equations in international relations.
- The Information Revolution and National Power:Political Aspects-II - Conclusion to preceding paper.
- The Remapping of India - India will soon have more than 25 states. Three more are being added, carved out of the huge, unwieldy mother states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The aim is to give their distinct regions an identity and greater control over their future. An in-depth analysis and everything you wanted to know about India's new states.
- The Evolution of Governance - What sort of governance makes sense in a complex global society? To consider that, we go back into deep time, before humans, before dinosaurs or insects, to a time when our microbial ancestors faced a global environmental crises of their own making.
Telling the story is Elisabet Sahtouris, Ph.D, an American/Greek evolutionary biologist, ecologist, futurist, consultant, and author of GAIA: The Human Journey from Chaos to Cosmos. She is a founding member of WISNet, the Worldwide Indigenous Science Network, a member of the Earth Parliament and of the Women's International Policy Action Committee on Environment and Development, among others.
- PRI - Policy Research Initiative - Connecting Researchers - The Policy Research Initiative (PRI) seeks to strengthen the policy research capacity in Canada. This site provides a service to the wide range of people interested and involved in public policy research and development. You can learn about the PRI and its activities, access the organizations and information that make up the world of policy research and keep connected through the PRI mailing list.
- China, Russia and the New Geopolitics of Power - Today, the United States, like Britain in 1910, stands at the pinnacle of power.Also like Britain, it created and presides over a liberal world order characterized by a level of interdependence approaching that of 1910.Today's Norman Angells are assuring us that since interdependence and cooperation have replaced competition in international affairs, large-scale war between great powers is unthinkable.
But as military strategist Colin Gray has observed, in international relations, "bad times return.²A likely source of future bad times is the rise of China and the emerging anti-U.S. strategic axis between China and Russia.
Since no two occurrences are ever exactly the same, historical analogy is often a dangerous way to cast light on contemporary issues.But the similarities between the cases of Wilhelmine Germany, and Great Britain at the turn of the century and China and the United States today are so compelling that they cannot be ignored.
- The Asian Connection: The New Geopolitics of Central Asia - The ongoing insurgency in southern Central Asia is the outer demonstration of a broader trend that has been developing lately. Central Asia, especially the three southern states of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, are in security matters becoming increasingly tied to the areas to their South and East, that is to Asia. This negates the soon decade-old paradigm of a "Turkish-Iranian-Russian triangle" in the geopolitics of the region. Whereas especially Turkey and Iran play only a small role for Central Asian security, the region is becoming part of an emerging security complex centering around Afghanistan. In the new equation developing presently, there is also speculation of US-Russian connivance as regards unfolding events in Central Asia, hence breaking the pattern of confrontation that has marked NATO-Russian relations since the 1999 Kosovo war.
- Iran and the New Geopolitics of the Persian Gulf - The new geopolitics of the Persian Gulf refers to the new interaction between competing political and economic interests of local players as well as the great powers shaped as a result of the change in the balance of power both on regional and international levels. The main purpose of this article is to answer the following basic questions:
- When and how did the new geopolitics of the Persian Gulf start?
- What are the regional effects of the new geopolitics?
- What seems to be the key challenges and opportunities facing the Islamic Republic of Iran under the present conditions?
- The New World Order and the Geopolitics of Information - During the past three decades, it has been suggested that an imbalance in information production and distribution might underlie uneven world economic development. Fraught with ideology, the debate about a New World Information and Communications Order (NWICO), tended to focus upon media ownership and upon the contending concepts of information as commodity and information as social good, upon the freedom of information as an individual versus a collective right.
This discussion paper summarizes the debate, and suggests that the collapse of the Soviet Union might provide an opportunity to overcome past political differences and to get down to the real business of assisting developing nations. In this activity, information technology specialists such as journalists, librarians, and computer scientists might play key roles.
The NWICO debate flourished, or perhaps one might more aptly say, raged, throughout much of the 1970s and 1980s in the halls of the United Nations, and particularly within Unesco. NWICO proponents and opponents alike accepted the premise of a link between economic progress and the availability of information. However, liberal theorists maintained that national cultures and sovereignty were not threatened by information concentration, while structuralist and socialist analysts argued that they were. In particular, the NWICO proponents, mostly drawn from the ranks of non-aligned nations, claimed that Western ownership and control of both the news media and their distribution channels constituted a form of cultural dominance whose covert goal was capitalist economic expansion.
This argument, played out in fora such as the Non-Aligned Movement and Unesco conferences drew support from the Soviet Union, and hostility from Western administrations. It was partly due to fears of the growing "politicization" of UNESCO that the United States and Great Britain withdrew from that organisation in the mid 1980s.
- Geopolitics - The New Geopolitics describes the"rebirth" of a discipline that addresses, as did the old geopolitics, questions of
politics and territory. If politics is the art of achieving desired goals, then territory constitutes that which is often desired. This observation brings to mind conflicts between states over borders and the demarcation of national territory. Such state-centered analysis has dominated international relations over the past seventy years, and with good reason. These years have seen the creation of many new states, two world wars, the Cold War, and a host of smaller-scale conflicts including Korea and Vietnam. That the 20th Century has proven a period of violence and natural resource exploitation is to be expected as the state has a monopoly on violence, war making, and resource extraction. Where the New Geopolitics differs is in the scope of its analysis. To argue that such conflict is simply over the placement of borders belies the multi-causal complexity of the political processes at play. "Throwing the state back out," captures the realization that causal factors besides the state and its attendant actors and policies must be considered when characterizing the processes that compose modern world events.
This change in perspective becomes apparent when contrasting the use of organic thinking. Classical geography used the organism as the foundation for analogies and justifications for predation, e.g., "States are like animals, animals consume other animals, therefore states should consume other states." The New Geopolitics retreats from such syllogisms, recognizing instead that "organic-ness" refers to the ephemerality of states. Although they may seem permanent, states are not immutable fixtures on the world stage -- instead they are created, maintained, and abandoned. This view recognizes that states are made up of multiple, diverse elements and that the failure of any single element can prove just as injurious as invasion from another state. Thus, state failure can occur due to intra-national as well as transnational processes.
- Geopolitics - This section attempts to highlight what some of the consequences of global politics can be. The power-play of personal or national interests can have a long lasting effect on many, many people.
- Geopolitics and Energy in the Middle East - The percentage of this oil that flows from the Gulf to the United States at any given time has little strategic or economic importance. Oil is a global commodity and the U.S. is required to share all imports in a crisis under the monitoring of the International Energy Agency. The U.S. will pay the same globally-determined price as any other nation. Further, the U.S. economy is dependent on the health of the global economy and on energy-intensive imports from Asia and other regions. In this case, what comes round must go round.
The critical geopolitical issue affecting the region is whether the Middle East will act as a stable supplier of oil and gas exports at market driven prices. This is not easy to predict in a region that has many intraregional and internal conflicts, serious economic problems, and major demographic problems. The Middle East is so heavily dependent on the income from energy exports that few nations will voluntarily limit their export revenues. War has had a major impact on energy exports in the past, however, and sanctions affect key exporters like Iran, Iraq, and Libya. New questions are also beginning to arise as to whether the Middle East can finance the energy development it needs without more privatization and much higher rates of foreign investment.
- The End Of Geopolitics? - Reflections - For students of geopolitics, these varied attempts to chart the end of the old and the beginning of the new have involved numerous pronouncements on the passing of geopolitics. Long before the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, figures like Paul Virilio (and more recently James Der Derian) were arguing that "chronopolitics" is now more important than geopolitics in contemporary international affairs. "The loss of material space," Virilio argued, "leads to the government of nothing but time." "Territory has lost its significance in favor of the projectile. In fact, the strategic value of the non-place of speed has definitely supplanted that of place." Never shy of hyperbole, Virilio proclaimed fourteen years ago that: "Space is no longer in geography - its in electronics...There is a movement from the geo- to chronopolitics: the distribution of territory becomes the distribution of time."
Others, like Edward Luttwak, asserted even before the collapse of the Soviet Union that the waning of the Cold War has reduced the significance of military power in international affairs. Summarizing a supposed consensus within the Western foreign policy community in the early 1990s, he posited a transition from geopolitics to geo-economics: "Everyone, it appears, now agrees that the methods of commerce are displacing military methods -- with disposable capital in lieu of firepower, civilian innovation in lieu of military-technical advancement, and market penetration in lieu of garrisons and bases." Luttwak's enthusiasms, however, fall far short of globalization boosters, like Keniche Ohmae, who envisions a near future world of borderless capitalism and "the end of the nation state." States, for Luttwak, are here to stay; they are "spatial entities structured to jealously delimit their own territories." They are "inherently inclined to strive for relative advantage against like entities on the international scene." As bureaucracies, they are "impelled by the bureaucratic urges of role-preservation and role-enhancement to acquire a 'geo-economic' substitute for their decaying geopolitical role." Thus the coming geo-economic age will not be one of harmonious global interdependence, but rather an age of continued state rivalry where "the logic of conflict" will be expressed in "the grammar of commerce."
- Towards a New Paradigm of the Nation: The Case of the Roma - The question of what is a nation has gained new significance with the recent increase in the number of claims for self-determination. The legitimacy of these claims rests upon the acceptance of a group in question as a nation, something more than just a random collection of people. The inter-national community also primarily regards nations as territorially based, and the consolidation of a nation within a specific territory has lent legitimacy to struggles of self-determination. Yet this limited definition can give both undue influence to territorially consolidated groups seeking full sovereignty and independence and undermine equally legitimate claims for self-determination among non-territorially consolidated groups. A new definition of the nation would allow groups such as the Roma (also known as Gypsies) which are not territorially consolidated to be accepted as a nation and would lend greater international legitimacy to their struggle for self-determination a struggle which does not aim for statehood but aims, rather, at achieving greater control over their own lives.
- Power to the People: The Role of Electronic Media in Promoting Democracy in Africa - This paper presents an analysis of the role of electronic media in promoting the eformation of democratic political regimes in Africa. With the dramatic expansion of various forms of electronic interchange, including electronic mail and the Internet, opportunities for communication across national boundaries, and cross-fertilization of ideas are greater than ever before. This article argues that access to electronic information can have a positive impact in promoting democracy in Africa, by providing civil society with greater leverage vis-à-vis the state and political elites. However, without parallel efforts to insure that access to the Internet is not restricted to urban, elite populations, political instability may result. The paper is structured as follows: Section I makes the theoretical case for the role of increased information access and communication in the promotion of democratic political regimes. Section II presents an overview of the state of electronic access in Africa, including indigenous and international donor supported initiatives to promote African connectivity. Section III presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between access to electronic media and political participation and democratization in Africa. Section IV considers methods to increase usage of electronic media as a tool for increased participation and democratization in Africa.
- The Power Of Openness - A Critique and a Proposal for The H20 Project - As software and networking technologies rapidly insinuate themselves into the deepest reaches of American commerce, culture and governance, the architecture of our democratic society is being transformed. One lesson that is becoming clearer is that the design of hardware and software and the governance of the Internet matters. These issues can profoundly affect competition and innovation in markets, the ability of universities, libraries and nonprofits to pursue their missions, and the control that individuals can exercise over their lives.
Within the past year, a number of forces have converged to suggest the socially constructive potential of software whose design code can be freely accessed and modified by computer users. It is a complex story that is still unfolding and known chiefly in computing/Internet circles. As we will explain in Section I, a growing grassroots movement on a global scale is challenging proprietary models of software development by generating superior, more reliable software that is far cheaper and even free. ...
To the layperson, it may not be immediately apparent why the new software movement holds rich promise. This proposal seeks to explain why its surprising emergence into the mainstream in 1998 is so significant and how, with timely and strategic assistance, open code software could evolve into a powerful new platform for the reinvigoration of the non-commercial civic sector in American society. By radically empowering computer users, it could help rejuvenate our democratic culture, improve education, catalyze a more consumer-responsive economy and ensure fairer, open governance of the Internet.
To reap the full potential of the open code revolution, we propose creating H20, an independent nonprofit organization to help foster the development and usage of the new software. We use the metaphor of water, H20, to emphasize that software is increasingly indispensable to life, at least an enfranchised civic, political, economic and social life. If software is to truly improve these domains, it must be capable of circulating freely so that it can nourish the fundamental values of an open society: democratic participation, social equity, equal opportunity and educational achievement, among others. Openness is a
virtue in software development not just because it tends to produce superior product, but equally because it fortifies free market competition and democratic principles.
This essay explains why open code software is so important, especially for various non-technical constituencies, and how a new organization - H20 - could help promote new development and usage of open source code software. This document is deliberately aimed at the layperson as much as the computer sophisticate because a new and broader conversation must be started, one that considers the far-reaching implications of open code software for how we shall govern ourselves, improve education, foster innovation and economic growth, and protect the sovereign interests of citizens and consumers. This text, then, is intended for anyone interested in these realms as well as for influential leaders of the foundation community who could catalyze some powerful changes by fostering the development of open source code software.
- Growing a Democratic Culture: John Commons on the Wiring of Civil Society - Is the Internet a friend of democracy? One prevailing discourse says no, that the Internet is actually the end of democracy, and that democratic laws can no longer be enforced. This discourse is not only hostile to democracy, of course -- it is hostile to government as such, and it speaks of "government" in a way that conflates constitutional democracy and totalitarianism.
Whatever its utility as political prescription, this philosophy has usefully directed attention to the complex and variegated institutional field through which the great bulk of any society is actually organized. Marx had no time for these institutions of civil society, which he regarded as epiphenomena of the essentially very simple structures through which a society and its citizens were defined. But civil society is now strikingly popular throughout the world and across the political spectrum, whether as a counterbalance to the overreaching of the state, as an integral constituent of democracy, or as the real and only substance of a free society.
- Sea, Space, Cyberspace: Borderless Domains - We are now in the midst of a revolution in military affairs unlike any seen since the Napoleonic Age. In that age, we saw the practice of maintaining small professional armies to fight wars end, to be replaced by citizen armies composed of much of a nation¹s entire adult population. This change fundamentally transformed the nature of armed conflict. Today we are in the information revolution with military forces now engaged in another fundamental shift, a shift from what we call platform-centric warfare to network-centric warfare. There is not yet a detailed and widespread understanding of the new operations‹no equivalent to Carl von Clausewitz's On War for this revolution. And that is one of the challenges which I will leave with this audience - the challenge of identifying and addressing the operational and legal issues associated with the new way in which wars of the future can and will be fought. Network-centric warfare enables a shift from attrition-style warfare to a much faster and more effective warfighting style characterized by the new concepts of speed of command and the ability of a well-informed force to organize and coordinate complex warfare activities from the bottom up.
- Borderlands: the changing spatiality of two Russian gateway regions - Human societies have always been comprised of multiple, overlapping and intersecting networks of interaction. Even at the height of the Cold War, for example, it is hard to argue that the USSR formed the core of a separate and distinct world-system. The point is not that these interactions are new; rather, that with the development of new transport and communication technologies and the expansion of a capitalist world economy which is now global in scope, the nature of the traditional nation-state is being transformed. Some writers have suggested that this is leading to an undermining, undercutting or hollowing out of the nation-state. Others have argued that the empirical evidence actually points to a number of contradictory trends; some weakening and some strengthening the traditional nation-state. What is clear is that above all else the impact of globalisation is uneven, varying across different types of states and different regions of the world system. This paper examines these claims by examining the changing spatiality of two borderlands of one state - the post-Soviet Russian Federation. Regions within the FSU are having to establish new political and economic relations with a variety of different types of institutions at a range of different levels of social interaction. The break up of the Soviet system not only meant the inclusion of 15 newly independent states into a single capitalist world economy. It also meant the complex re-ordering of places, localities and regions within post-Soviet, international and global political and economic landscapes. Within this re-ordering, several writers have claimed that border regions like the Republic of Karelia and Primorskii krai have a special role to play. In particular, borderlands are seen as privileged localities because they can act as gateways to more developed economies in neighbouring regions and states.
- Narrating the Future of the National Economy and the National State? - Whereas the national state retains a large measure of formal national sovereignty rooted in continued mutual recognition among national states and remains an important site for political struggles, its actual capacities to project its power inside its borders (let alone beyond them) in the interests of accumulation have been decisively weakened both by movement toward more internationalized, flexible (but also regionalized) production systems and by the growing challenge posed by risks emanating from the global environment. Nonetheless this loss of autonomy does not lead to the simple 'withering away' of the national state or the steady and unilinear erosion of its boundaries as a 'power container'. Instead the loss of autonomy engenders both the need for supra-national coordination and the space for subnational resurgence and extends thereby the scope for the national state itself to mediate between the supra- and subnational. Thus some state capacities are transferred to a growing number of panregional, plurinational, or international bodies with a widening range of powers; others are devolved to restructured local or regional levels of governance in the national state; and yet others are being usurped by emerging horizontal networks of power -- local and regional -- that by-pass central states and connect localities or regions in several nations.
- Two Web-based Australian Experiments in Electronic Democracy - A framework is proposed for conceptualising uses of interactive technology across scales. The first part of the paper considers a generic definition of democracy and relates this to the pluralising potential of interactive technology, as an extension of complexity theory. In this view, the added voices of electronic democracy are the 'butterflies' of chaos theory, creating widespread but unpredictable effects. Technology use at different level is linked by the values of the dominant actors. The authors describe two web-based experiments in electronic democracy conducted during 1998. One culminated in the first Australian on-line debate between candidates in the ACT territory elections in February. The other was a national discussion board set up in the period preceding the Federal election in October. The factors affecting the outcomes in both these cases will be considered. A set of information values for the democratic uses of information technology is contrasted with globalising values that minimise participation.
- Thinking Geopolitical Space: The Spatiality Of War - A provocative consequence of pure war that is more particular to Virilio is his argument about the eclipse of geopolitics by chronopolitics or the politics of time. Virilio equates geopolitics with the strategic value of territory whereas chronopolitics is associated with the emergent strategic value of telemetricality. The former's strategic value, he argues, has been declining while the significance of technological systems has increased. Space, he suggests, "is no longer in geography -- it's in electronics": Politics is less in physical space than in the time systems administered by various technologies, from telecommunications to airplanes, passing by the TGV, etc. There is a movement from geo- to chrono-politics: the distribution of territory becomes the distribution of time. The distribution of territory is outmoded, minimal. At other points, he reads this tendency as the discrediting of "geopolitical extensivity in favor of a transpolitical intensivity of exchange and communication" which has declinist implications for states as territorial entities. The "war of real time has clearly supplanted the war in real space of geographical territories that long ago conditioned the history of nations and peoples". "Territory has lost its significance in favor of the projectile. In fact, the strategic value of the non-place of speed has definitely supplanted that of place, and the question of possession of Time has revived that of territorial appropriation". Places disappear in a world delimited by the "vehicular extermination" of the global nuclear war qua deterrence machines.
- About The CyberNation of Freedom - The CyberNation of Freedom is a non-violent, law abiding nation on the Internet that seeks your citizenship and support in order to revert government back to the founding principles of democracy. It is not a right wing or left wing movement. It is a mainstream effort for serious change. Citizenship is free and welcome to all.
- A Cosmic Community Paradigm - If you are a person who doesn't mind (or who actually enjoys) engaging in rigorous intellectual work if the reward is great enough, then this book may be for you. If you have heard that revelations in quantum physics have shed new light on the meaning of life and an end to the deadening, materialistic- mechanistic view which has dominated for the past several centuries, but you need some help in making all the connections, then this book may be for you. If you would especially like to work for the time when economic and political structures throughout the world were such that "justice for all" on this earth was finally assured, then this book is definitely for you.
- Will You Become Your Own Nation? - Global politics is, in a sense, coming to have the pluralism and diversity typical of politics in democratic countrieswith one crucial difference. Democratic societies recognize and accept the people as the ultimate source of sovereignty and some government institutions, usually the legislature and courts, as the ultimate sources of authority. In the emerging global politics, however, state sovereignty and authority are withering, and no alternative, such as some system of world government, is about to fill the vacuum. The result is almost certain to be chaos. The basic issue for the next quarter-century is whether statesmen will have the patience and wisdom to manage this chaos in peaceful rather than violent fashion.
- The Californian Ideology - There is an emerging global orthodoxy concerning the relation between society, technology and politics. In this paper we are calling this orthodoxy the Californian Ideology in honour of the state where it originated. By naturalising and giving a technological proof to a political philosophy, and therefore foreclosing on alternative futures, the Californian ideologues are able to assert that social and political debates about the future have now become meaningless and - horror of horrors - unfashionable.
This paper argues for an interactive future.
- Poly-Cy Guide to Internet Resources for Political Science - Teaching Resources
- The People's Geography Project - The major goal of the People's Geography Project is to popularize and make even more relevant and useful to ordinary people the important, critical ways of understanding the complex geographies of everyday life that geographers have and continue to develop. Our contention is that such knowledge is an important tool not just in learning to cope with constantly developing and transforming relations of power that are deeply geographical, but in learning how to actively transform those relations in the name of social and economic justice.
- Freedom Beyond Control - Why should a borderless society not exist? In fact, from a complexity viewpoint, we may ask can it be stopped? We are all members of many sub-societies nowadays, virtual communities of diverse wishes and structures. We thus need a political arrangement that can support this structure in an appropriate way. But when we ask how it is already structured, we find that it has actually self-organized over the years - and it works! Perhaps it really is time that we discarded those control based ideas of yesteryear and embraced in politics what has already happened elsewhere in modern society?
- Intelligent software agents and privacy - Currently, strenuous efforts are underway to develop software that will act as our "agents" in the future. Increasing concerns about information overload and the pace of modern life have made these "intelligent agents" an appealing concept. The notion of having an agent that would serve our needs and act on our behalf, to manage the day-to-day activities of our lives, much as a trusted personal servant would, is viewed not only as an advantage but a necessity in the warp-drive, networked world that we now live in. We wish to raise a note of caution, however, because such agents may also pose a serious threat to the privacy of their users -- intelligent agents operate by accessing a detailed personal profile of the user, which enables them to execute their user's wishes. The potential loss of control over one's profile and the prospect of having the details of one's life accessed by unauthorized third parties looms like a black cloud over any potential benefits that may accrue. These issues are fully explored in the text of this report.
- The Dynamics of Policy in a Networked World - The distinction between domestic and foreign policy has been part of the common sense of politics for hundreds of years. In the United States, for example, the Constitution explicitly divides responsibility for the two realms, with Congress having the initiative in the domestic area and the executive having the initiative in foreign affairs. The Internet, however, threatens to undermine this distinction. In a world where everything is connected to everything else by ubiquitous networked computing, societies and polities interact on numerous levels. Even when the formal mechanisms of government proceed along their accustomed lines, state policy-making is increasingly embedded in global policy processes. It is not just the Internet, of course, that brings such changes about. At best the Internet can participate in, and amplify, structural forces for global integration that have many other expressions as well. The Internet's revolutionary reputation should not be allowed to obscure a more complex reality. Nonetheless, it is worth exploring the question: in an Internet world, all policy foreign policy? And if so, what consequences follow for the policy-making process?
- Modelling The Impact Of The Internet On National Sovereignty - Traditionally, threats to national sovereignty mostly came from external political forces. In the last decade of the last millennium however, the most important challenges to national sovereignty came instead from commercial forces as reflected in globalisation. Increasingly these were via the medium of the Internet. The purpose of this paper is to model the impact of the Internet on national sovereignty. National sovereignty is discussed in general terms at both macro and micro levels. Then the Internet and those elements relating to national sovereignty are explored. The specific areas of national sovereignty impacted upon at the macro level (environmental variables) are discussed, followed by an exploration of the impact of the Internet on areas of national sovereignty at the micro level (i.e. marketing mix variables). Finally an interactive model is arrived at showing the overall impact of the Internet on national sovereignty.
- The World Wide Web as Political Public Space - This paper analyzes the evolving digital network (the Internet, the World Wide Web, and the rapidly evolving offshoot nets such as limited PDA networks, etc.) as public space shaped by the same general forces that have shaped precedent forms of modern public space. Why the concept of public space? We emphasize the notion of public space situated in digital networks because the spread of the Internet and World Wide Web as a widely used public space has hinted at, but not fulfilled, the promise that many optimists have attributed to it. We are most concerned here with detailing why no space on the Internet has yet to decisively contribute to the evolution of a public space used for political deliberation and discussion. The present characteristics of political public space on the World Wide Web particularly, space nominally dedicated to fostering open, relatively unfettered participation in deliberation and debate on political matters suggest that the Web has been a site for the extension of many of the same characteristics that have characterized political information flows in other electronic media during the post-war period.
- Globalization and the Nation-State - This phenomenon of globalisation seems to weaken the traditional power and sovereignty of nation-states, since much of the aspects seem to be out of control for the states. Hence, a lot of authors these days raise the issue of the changing role and power of the nation-state in the face of globalisation. Some authors argue that the invincible globalising forces will inevitably lead to the demise or fatal weakening of the nation-state system in international politics. This kind of argument is explicitly presented in the titles such as "The End of the Nation-State" (K. Ohmae, 1996) and "The Retreat of the State" (Susan Strange, 1996). Others refuse this argument and contend that nation-states will hold fast to their traditional powers and sovereignty. The purpose of this essay is to look at the conflicting arguments on the relationship between globalisation and the sovereignty of the nation-state. In doing this, this essay will present different views on the subjects, and will try to find what the conflicting arguments imply to human development. To do this, this essay will look into the conceptual matters of globalisation and sovereignty first.
- Military Theorists - Military Theorists and scholars throughout history have noted the occurrence of profound, discontinuous changes in the conduct-sometimes even the nature-of warfare. Recently, significant intellectual effort has focused on such an emerging "revolution in military affairs (RMA)," defined by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (Net Assessment) as "a major change . . . brought about by the innovative application of new technologies which, combined with dramatic changes in military doctrine and operational and organizational concepts, fundamentally alters the character and conduct of military operations." The notion of an RMA differs from the Soviet concept of a "military-technical revolution," primarily by its emphasis on the nontechnological dimensions of military power. In the RMA paradigm, the "brainware" component is as important as-perhaps even more important than-the hardware component. Given this fact, consideration of the future focus and conduct of professional military education (PME) can be counted among the most vital tasks facing the Department of Defense (DOD) today. As we look to the future, the answers to two related questions are of potentially great importance. First, how can we leverage PME to better understand and exploit the potential of the RMA? Second, how can we leverage the RMA itself to enhance PME?
- European Capital Cities As Political Frontiers - The capital is the centre of the established order but it always had to accept a relatively uncontrollable world of individuals redefining urban space in their own way or pioneering new means of support. As their existence is both a political nuisance and a foreshadowing of institutional changes (sometimes revolutionary) of nation-wide importance, we call such ways of life political frontiers. One may wonder what will become of political frontiers in the information society (or 'postmodern' society) that, apart from borderless, has been described as 'society without a centre' as well. Actually information society is the prototype of a frontier society with self-responsible groups and individuals. However, capitals - even stripped of their governmental functions - may offer a symbolical environment (a condensation of space and time) that precisely satisfies the wants of those who wish to politicise a way of life. Niches for pioneering behaviour may get dispersed over a wider territory but new types of political activity will gravitate to the capital even if the capital's official political status has dwindled.
- The Territorial Factor - 'An allegedly human instinct for territorial possessiveness...' with that phrase a classic introduction in Human Geography (de Blij 1977/1996, p. 21) attempts to familiarize the reader with the idea of territoriality. In spite of the adjective 'human' this phrase (and particularly the word 'instinct') evokes the image of an almost animalistic urge, a reflex. Even authors of recent introductions in geography still think fit to use terms like 'innate sense' while introducing the concept territoriality (Marston & Knox, 1999, p. 237). Such descriptions, that inevitably seem to accompany the word territoriality, trigger a biological worldview. The animal world was the inspiration for a seminal article of geographer David Stea (Space, territory and human movements 1965) reaching a wide readership when it was included in such groundbreaking readers as 'The structure of political geography' (Kasperson & Minghi 1969) and 'Environmental Psychology' (Proshanski, Ittelson and Rivlin 1970).
- Welcome to the Nunavut Planning Commission web site - The Nunavut Planning Commission (NPC) was established under the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement and is responsible for land use planning and various aspects of environmental reporting and management in the new Territory. NPC's main function is to develop land use plans, policies and objectives that guide resource use and development throughout Nunavut, with an emphasis on protecting and promoting the existing and future well-being of the residents and communities of the Nunavut Settlement Area. The site has extensive information on the 6 Nunavut planning regions, including full text land use planning documents.
- Global Public Policy: Governing without Government? - An online book from the Brookings Institution Press of the National Academic Press. Many of the NAP's publications are made available online in HTML, PDF, and even some XML-like presentations. But HTML and PDF (not to mention XML) can be surprisingly expensive in personnel and time if anything but a collection of "save-as-html" files is desired. Further, an astonishing degree of diversity in our content stream is a given: print runs may be anywhere from 200 to 20,000; material may come to us camera-ready from a committee, or as manuscript, or as Word files. The print results desired may be strip-bound digital photocopies, or may be rich four-color work. Multiple data types like this make almost any coherent content strategy difficult and expensive to implement. What we have been striving toward over the last year has been the development of a integrated presentational system, combining an up-to-date database, the best of HTML, full-text searching, and robust production scripts to meet an array of goals.
- The Military and the Environment in the Post Cold War Era - We are undertaking a long-term and rather ambitious research program to examine the changing relationship of the military and the environment over time and place. And we are looking for a few good colleagues to join us. We have a concept paper that describes the project and our first research phase. If you are interested in possible participation, email me and I will send you a copy. An executive summary of the project and our progress to date follows. "The Military and the Environment in the Post-Cold War Era" is a broad research agenda that will include different research projects that examine specific issues. Our concept paper is designed to generate interest on the part of potential colleagues and institutions/agencies in participating in and supporting this research. Optimally the participants in this project will include both academic researchers from civilian institutions and military/government researchers from both the US and abroad.
- The Scope of Military Geography
- Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare - Information age technologies are changing values and national interests, both of which drive the formulation of national security strategy. The strategy equals ends plus ways plus means paradigm must change. Information age knowledge strategy seeks the ends of cooperative and dynamic competition, uses the ways of network node control and organizational adaptation, and requires the resource means of valued information enhanced by experience in exploiting that information. A successful information age security strategy requires that we balance the ends, ways, and means of knowledge strategies. Whether we use the political, economic, military, or informational elements of national power, we serve our strategic ends best when we cooperate to shape robust information networks that promote dynamic competition and enhance mutual performance both in the public and private sectors. Further, we must control network nodes and communications links and secure our information resources. The security and integrity of our cyberspace must be considered an important, if not vital national interest.
- The World Of 2020 And Alternative Futures - The SPACECAST 2020 method of creating a realistic set of planning horizons blended expert opinion with unbiased, critical analysis and synthesis. While a few of the participants had graduate education in strategic planning and corporate-level experience, most were bright operators -- technical experts in the application of military power. These operators needed to be educated about the future. SPACECAST 2020 exposed the participants to futurists, scientists, science fiction writers, Hollywood screen writers, as well as political, economic, social, and technology experts. Since the visions, projections, and data from these experts often conflicted, the participants were empowered to extract the most persuasive insights.
To synthesize the complex and discordant perspectives on 2020 and beyond, participant groups constructed independent glimpses of the world of 2020 from which common salient features were extracted. Fourteen groups sifted through the data and developed brief presentations depicting their ideas about the operating environment of 2020. A senior group of participants evaluated the substantive merits of each projection and elicited the common, highly likely assumptions. The group then forged a consensus world view, which was presented to all participants and iterated several times. The SPACECAST 2020 world view captured the most likely environment for US activity related to space in the future and became the planning basis for the study's concept and technology generation and assessment.
- Gorbachev as CEO Road Kill: Introduction - Western specialists on the Soviet Union during the Cold War encountered, without realizing it, many issues under current discussion in management science. Those issues presented themselves as problems in understanding the cognitive aspects and organizational development of the Soviet political system. Indeed, the first major political interpretation of the post-Stalin Soviet system literally characterized it as "USSR, Inc.," in order to make the point that it was organized as a large bureaucratic institution. The political disintegration of the USSR can be regarded as a failure by the Soviet system to adapt successfully to demands from increasingly complex international and domestic environments. As such, there is direct relevance to the situation encountered by managers in complex bureaucracies today.
- The Death of Privacy - Information, as we all know, is power. Both collecting and collating personal information are means of acquiring power, usually at the expense of the data subject. Whether this is desirable depends upon who the viewer and subject are and who is weighing the balance. People have long been believed, for example, that the citizen's ability to monitor the state tends to promote honest government, that "[s]unlight is . . . the best of disinfectants." One need look no further than the First Amendment of the United States Constitution to be reminded that protecting the acquisition and dissemination of information is an essential means of empowering citizens in a democracy. Conversely, at least since George Orwell's 1984, if not Bentham's Panopticon, the image of the all-seeing eye, the Argus state, has been synonymous with the power to exercise repression. Today, the all-seeing eye need not necessarily belong to the government, as many in the private sector find it valuable to conduct various forms of surveillance or to "mine" data collected by others. For example, employers continually seek new ways to monitor employees for efficiency and honesty; firms trawl databases for preference information in the search for new customers. Even an infrequently exercised capability to collect information confers power on the potential observer at the expense of the visible: Knowing you may be watched affects behavior. Modern social science confirms our intuition that people act differently when they know they are on Candid Camera--or Big Brother Cam.
In this article, I will use "informational privacy" as shorthand for the ability to control the acquisition or release of information about oneself. I will argue that both the state and the private sector now enjoy unprecedented abilities to collect personal data, and that technological developments suggest that costs of data collection and surveillance will decrease, while the quantity and quality of data will increase. I will also argue that, when possible, the law should facilitate informational privacy because the most effective way of controlling information about oneself is not to share it in the first place.
- Thunder and Lightning - The group of planners who met in the basement of the Pentagon under the direction of Col John Warden, Air Staff director of war-fighting concepts, during early August 1990 had one clear purpose in mind: to force Iraq's army out of Kuwait by applying airpower in a strategic offensive directed at the sources of Iraqi national power. Their plan would employ "new" concepts‹inside-out warfare, simultaneity, and parallel warfare‹to apply cataclysmic and unrelenting pressure on the Iraqi nation and Saddam Hussein's regime until the latter acquiesced to United Nations (UN) and coalition demands. Warden and his planners hoped to correct what they felt were America's previous "mistakes" of applying airpower in a gradualistic, supporting role (especially in Vietnam). Airpower would be the "main show" (in some minds, the only show), and the Air Force would demonstrate‹once and for all‹the dominant role that the "military-technical revolution" (MTR) had made possible for airpower. Indeed, some of the planners hoped to prove that airpower could in fact win a war "all alone." At the very least, the US would avoid the horrible mistakes of Vietnam (i.e., bomb a little here, a little there, and see if the enemy is ready to be more accommodating). They called their plan Instant Thunder in direct opposition to the Vietnam era's Rolling Thunder campaign. There would be no gradualism or escalation‹no pauses in the bombing until Hussein gave up or the Iraqi conscript army removed him.
- War In The Information Age - This year marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Its adoption by the UN General Assembly in 1948 came on the heels of the Second World War and the demise of the principle of unrestricted state sovereignty. This was motivated in large part by the effects of mass warfare such as carpet bombing and Nazi genocidal practices.
Today, 50 years later, we are witnessing the rise of the "virtual state" and the emergence of a different kind of warfare through the use of smart bombs, laser-guided munitions, and information warfare weapons. This post-Cold War revolution in military affairs has shifted national security concerns from nuclear weapons use and deterrence to information weapons and deterrence involving both nation states and individuals and groups not attached to governments.
Leon Trotsky once remarked "You may not be interested in war, but war is interested in you." We want to forget about the twin threats of political totalitarianism and nuclear annihilation that haunted humanity throughout the Cold War. The fact that in any given year approximately 30 wars of various sizes are raging on the planet from Chechnya to Chiapas seems far removed for most Canadians. Nonetheless, despite recent tensions in Iraq, the threat of war seems to have a quaintly archaic ring.
But whether we are interested in war or not, military strategists are preparing for the next information age war. The world of information warefare is a world where logic bombs, computer viruses, Trojan horses, precision-guided munitions, stealth designs, radio-electronic combat systems, new electronics for intelligence-gathering and deception, microwave weapons, space-based weapons, and robotic warfare are being discussed, developed and deployed.
- The E-Bomb - a Weapon of Electrical Mass Destruction - High Power Electromagnetic Pulse generation techniques and High Power Microwave technology have matured to the point where practical E-bombs (Electromagnetic bombs) are becoming technically feasible, with new applications in both Strategic and Tactical Information Warfare. The development of conventional E-bomb devices allows their use in non-nuclear confrontations. This paper discusses aspects of the technology base, weapon delivery techniques and proposes a doctrinal foundation for the use of such devices in warhead and bomb applications.
- National Defence/Canadian Forces - Strategy 2020
- State of the Digital State - The Center for Digital Government surveys the 50 states to reveal who's getting the most out of technology in law enforcement and social services.
- How does the rise of electronic communities affect civic institutions? - In his final state of the union address last year, President William Jefferson Clinton remarked on the meaning of opportunity in the electronic era: "Opportunity for all requires something else today‹having access to a computer and knowing how to use it. That means we must close the digital divide between those who've got the tools and those who don't. Connecting classrooms and libraries to the Internet is crucial." And, indeed, his administration has strongly supported the deployment of electronic infrastructure through federally funded initiatives and technical assistance programs.
- The 21st Century Infantry Company - The LAV APC is a 21st century infantry fighting vehicle. It is not just another battlefield taxi, and its maintenance cannot be a second priority for the infantry. Neither can the Infantry Corps neglect to make an appropriate commitment to the development and sustainment of battlefield crew skills. The Infantry Corps must be prepared to consider a fundamental reorganization of the infantry company to maximize the potential of the LAV APC. But, as we have seen, reorganizing the company to meet new threats, or to integrate new technology, is a traditional approach in itself. Adoption and commitment to the crewed vehicle concept, a consistent and supported crew hierarchy within the battalion, and development of drills that minimize disruption through the continuance of outdated practices are necessary waypoints to the 21st Century Infantry Company. If we treat the LAV APC as just another M113, we've already lost our way.
- The Regimental System - Many military authors have addressed the Regimental System, from many varying points of view. But few authors treating the subject have been able to definitively establish what the Regimental System is, or what elements make it a truly valuable attribute of a modern army. Most often these articles confuse the regimental system with the existence of a specific organizational or unit structure, such as the Canadian Army's named regiments.
- The Defence of Duffer's Drift - A classic in small unit tactics in the British and Canadian Armies. This book is recommended, without qualification, to the modern Infantry soldier. (RMcD: I first read this book when in my teens in high school. I wholeheartedly concur with the reviewer's assessment.)
- The Canadian Forces And The Revolution In Military Affairs: A Time For Change - I have read with interest recent Journal articles on the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). The ongoing discourse demonstrates that an RMA is actively shaping the Canadian Forces (CF) of the future. The purpose of this article is to explain some of the initiatives which the CF are currently undertaking to meet the challenge of the RMA, and to outline briefly some of my views on the way ahead. I use the term RMA in a general sense, because I am not referring solely to an information technology-driven, resource-intensive RMA. The RMA we are experiencing is a combination of American initiatives and several uniquely Canadian conditions. Our current circumstances may not be quite as we wish, but the new technology and the ideas associated with this RMA cannot be, and are not being ignored. This RMA has in fact arrived at an ideal time for the CF -- a time when change must be embraced if we are to sustain our combat capabilities. We need to revitalize our doctrine, our equipment and our force structure, and I see a clear link between embracing this change and the RMA.
- Infantry Tactics
- Small Unit Infantry Tactics
- Exercise First Blood - Basic Infantry Tactics
- Delta Force Tactics Manual: Library: Infantry and Infantry Tactics
- Urban Combat - Infantry tactics in built-up areas
- Infantry SOP
- Battle Tactics of the Western Front: The British Army's Art of Attack 1916-1918
- Basil Lidell Hart - Strategy
- 2nd Rangers Battalion - A WWII Online Infantry Squad
- A Short History of War - Contents
- Bercuson Report on the Future of the Canadian Armed Forces
- The Net in the hands of citizens - This dissertation is a collection of articles focusing on the Internet as a means of citizen empowerment and the networks as the new environment of civil society. The basic interest of the study is the potential of the Internet to enhance citizen resources and capabilities.
- Preparing for the 21st Century - Without question, the United States needs information about the world outside its borders to protect its national interests and relative position in the world, whether as a Cold War "superpower" or a nation that remains heavily and inextricably engaged in world affairs. It needs information to avoid crises as well as respond to them, to calibrate its diplomacy, and to shape and deploy its defenses.
Much of that information is openly available, but much of it is not. Intelligence agencies attempt to fill the void. Their capabilities are costly. At times their activities are a source of embarrassment, even consternation. But they continue to provide information crucial to U.S. interests. Over the last five years, conflicts have been avoided, wars shortened, agreements reached, costs reduced, and lives saved as a result of information produced by U.S. intelligence agencies.
The Commission concludes that the United States should continue to maintain a strong intelligence capability. U.S. intelligence has made, and continues to make, vital contributions to the nation's security. Its performance can be improved. It can be made more efficient. But it must be preserved.
- Defense Intelligence Agency : Moving Toward the 21st Century - Since 1990 a new DIA has been emerging. Our mission has been re-shaped and its focus sharpened, elements within DIA have been completely reorganized, budget and personnel reductions have been absorbed, and new strategic plans have been laid. Now is the time to add impetus to the process of changing the DIA "work culture" -- the way we conduct ourselves, make decisions, shape our leaders, communicate, and develop ourselves professionally -- to ensure that our internal evolution keeps pace with the dramatic structural and environmental changes already well underway. This booklet is intended to serve as our guide for cultural change, as well as a blueprint for building a better DIA.
The following will outline:
- DIA's vision for the future of Defense Intelligence,
- the guiding philosophy that helps us shape a new DIA,
- the methods we use to create the climate and organizational structure in which we wish to operate, and
- a description of the caliber of people we need to bring DIA into the 21st Century.
- Military gathering intelligence on Amnesty International and Christian Aid. What the hell are they up to? - These days just about every home in the western world can be listened into live by security agencies such as GCHQ and the NSA. How have we allowed this to happen?
The physical separation that comes with modern mobility of labour has increased our need for electronic communications. These electronic media, and their mystifying digital technology have created the perfect climate for surveillance. The British digital telephone exchanges are called 'System-X'. I still haven't met anyone who can explain what its capabilities are. With the advent of digital mobile phones we can be listened to in the street and also tracked by satellite - although there is little substantiated evidence for this it is well within the technologies available. So that's what the Global Positioning System satellites were for!
The other necessary ingredient is our ignorance. Only when we don't know we may be being listened to will we blurt out all those things we wanted to stay private.
Phone, fax and email can be listened in to and always be aware that the telephone is a microphone whether or not you're talking on it. Even when the receiver is down it can still pick up and transmit to the police, domestic Military intelligence and/or 'security services' what you are saying.
- Publications of Gearoid O Tuathail/Gerard Toal - Books, articles and chapters in edited volumes many of which are available on the web. The following two papers are examples.
- Negotiating Unruly Problematics - An Unruly World? is a select edited collection of the papers from the Crises of Global Regulation and Governance conference held in Athens, Georgia in March 1996.
Within numerous of the defining problematics of the late twentieth century -- problematics such as globalization, governance, and geography -- unruliness appears as a mantra to some and as a paradigmatic and spectral condition to others. In and of itself, the concept of "unruliness" is not a secret cipher to our contemporary global political economy. It expresses no hidden essence nor does it offer divine revelation, a mastering concept based on a god's eye view (the position of a Mackinder) from which to make sense of the messy complexity of our world at the end of the millennium. Like all concepts, its multiple uses are delimited con-textually. Our interest in it is as a path of entry into the problematics of ungovernable globalization, turbulent governance, and disorderly geography, problematics where "unruliness" registers in ways which divulge certain lines of power and disclose ironic contradictions in the structural trends and tendencies re-configuring the rules of the globe. In this sense, the unruly is, for us, a question and not an answer, a open line of inquiry and not a closed definitive description. So it is, too, for the essays that make up this volume which engage the unruly problematics of globalization, governance, and geography in different places, contexts, sectors, and institutional sites. Rather than describe each essay in detail or discipline all in the name of a forced thematic singularity, we wish to use this introduction to articulate the multiple problematics they negotiate, articulating as we go along the particular sites of power addressed by the various chapters in the volume. Our goal in this volume is not to survey the global political economy we work within from some transcendent "geographical perspective" but, instead, to engage with the polymorphous unruliness of our world to gain a greater understanding of its shifting tectonics of power and the faultlines they generate.
- The Postmodern Geopolitical Condition: States, Statecraft, and Security at the Millennium - As we leave a century dominated by geopolitical conflicts and world wars, what is the future of geopolitics? This paper argues that contemporary geopolitical discourses and practices are being transformed by three boundary challenging processes: globalization, informationalization, and the global risk society unleashed by advanced modernity. It suggests that these have given rise to a "postmodern geopolitical condition" that is rendering the spatial imaginations associated with modern state-centric geopolitics increasingly redundant (though they remain in use). This paper briefly discusses three aspects of this postmodern geopolitical condition: states and the ambivalences of globalization; statecraft, informationalization and geopolitical crises; and security, risk society and emergence of de-territorialized threats. It asks critical geopolitical questions about those U.S. discourses and practices grappling with these features of the postmodern geopolitical condition.
- Competing Conceptions of Globalization - Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions.
The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization.
The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internationalization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate) conceptions of the 'global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine) conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research.
- Army Training XXI - Force of Tomorrow (US Army): Using Joint Venture (JV), the Army is executing a series of Advance Warfighting Experiments (AWE) and Advanced Warfighting Demonstrations (AWD) to define the force of tomorrow: FORCE XXI. As the Army creates FORCE XXI, we must concurrently develop the means and methods to train and sustain the force. To achieve the maximum potential of FORCE XXI, the Army must use a spiral development process allowing early decisions based upon projected requirements and emerging concepts. By using the spiral development process, the Army can leverage technological improvements to continually integrate changes as tomorrow's force is developed.
- Canadian Military Intelligence
- Virtual World of Intelligence: Canadian Intelligence
- The Coming Intelligence Failure - History is rife with examples of intelligence failures. Bureaucratic remedies for these failures have often meant organizational changes. Unfortunately, since these solutions have not fixed the underlying problem, they are viewed as invalid solutions. Intelligence is inappropriately viewed. It is not a panacea. Rather, it is the end product of a logical progression of human thought processes. The intelligence process, by virtue of being human is itself flawed. Thus, intelligence failures in general, and military intelligence failures specifically are inevitable in the future. That observation notwithstanding, good intelligence is viewed as pivotal to leaders. Intelligence plays a supporting role in assisting leaders to make informed decisions. However, even the best intelligence in the world does not eliminate the burden of making difficult choices - that is a leadership role. Notwithstanding the contention that intelligence failures in the future are inevitable, strong, educated, fully engaged leadership offers the only workable solution to delay the coming intelligence failure.
- Terrorism, Counterterrorism, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, WMDs
- frontline: hunting bin laden
- Reducing the Threat of War and Terrorism
- Terrorism Research Center: Future of Terrorism
- Panel to tackle U.S. hatred in the Middle East - If you look at the terrorist acts, you can see they required a great deal of methodical and rational planning to carry them out. These weren't simply acts of religious piety by a handful of madmen. These were acts that are deeply rooted in a political, economic and historical context--not just theology.
- Patterns of Global Terrorism 2000
- A New Way Of War In The Information Age - But the de facto world of information operations also includes: Command-and-control warfare, or strikes against an enemy's "head and neck;" Intelligence-based warfare, or the design, denial and protection of systems that seek to dominate battlefield awareness; Electronic warfare in the electromagnetic spectrum; Psychological operations, perception management, or information used to change opposing wills, including operations against the national will, commanders, troops, and cultural conflict; Hackerwar or software-based attacks on information systems; Economic info-warfare, or the manipulation of information exchanged in trade (either denial or exploitation) as an instrument of state policy; Cyberwar, or the use of information systems against the virtual personas of individuals or groups. A skeptic might ask, if information warfare is all of these things, can it really be anything? Or, is it merely a fancy name for the difficult issues national security and military institutions face in a post-Cold War context?
- Military Theory and Information Warfare - This article reviews the effects of information technologies on military theory, tempered by insights into the consequences of previous technological revolutions. Issues emerge that are independent of any technology or international security environment. They include an appraisal of the ability of contemporary analysts and theorists to challenge promises of unprecedented change, and an examination of the theoretical implications of the so-called "revolution in military affairs." Related issues include the need to avoid being dazzled by the new technologies (while not exaggerating their significance) and at the same time appreciating the extraordinary near-term advantages and capabilities they afford. Finally there is the matter of balance. We must use the technologies to advantage, neither misapplying them in haste nor hesitating until we miss the opportunities they represent.
- Knowledge Strategies: Balancing Ends, Ways, And Means In The Information Age - Information age technologies are changing values and national interests, both of which drive the formulation of national security strategy. The strategy equals ends plus ways plus means paradigm must change. Information age knowledge strategy seeks the ends of cooperative and dynamic competition, uses the ways of network node control and organizational adaptation, and requires the resource means of valued information enhanced by experience in exploiting that information. A successful information age security strategy requires that we balance the ends, ways, and means of knowledge strategies. Whether we use the political, economic, military, or informational
elements of national power, we serve our strategic ends best when we cooperate to shape robust information networks that promote dynamic competition and enhance mutual performance both in the public and private sectors. Further, we must control network nodes and communications links and secure our information resources. The security and integrity of our cyberspace must be considered an important, if not vital national interest.
- Information Warfare: Reshaping Traditional Perceptions - In the drive to understand information warfare and defining it , an important factor to consider is where it fits into the scale of conflict that we are used to. Global war has long been synonymous with large-scale operations over continents involving armies or even nuclear war. If information revolution has transformed the world into a global village, then one might need to ruminate over the thought whether information warfare conducted at the inter-state level constitutes a global war since in the age of economic interdependence, attacks on one might have a domino effect beyond the intended victim. Perhaps, the classification of war into regular, irregular war, etc. itself needs to be given a fresh thought as these may now be considered outdated products of industrial age conflict. On the other hand, in the coming years, it is difficult to see information warfare being the sole method of warfare and , therefore, some co-existence would take place. The very notion of society protecting the individual has been altered with the information revolution since it is simple to bypass the society and strike directly at the individual, in a similar manner as air power bypassed forces to strike at the society, which till then was protected by the surface forces. The underlying issue is that the information revolution has given birth to the genie of information warfare, which besides other things,shows all signs of making us change the way we think about war, peace, and security.
- Chapter 1. America's Army
- The Civilianization of Information Age Warfare - One of the most troubling societal impacts of Information Warfare is a phenomenon which has been dubbed the "civilianization" of IW. Civilianization shifts the means of Information Age war toward a new strategic emphasis on the civilian realm. This shift, which will be a definitive characteristic of war in the Information Age, originates in the convergence of historical precedent with the private sector's current domination of the information technology market. The result will significantly blur the time-honored distinction between 'military' and 'civilian' and, by adding a new strategic dimension to war, may also expand traditional conceptions of military jurisdiction in the Information Age.
- Suicide terrorism: a global threat - Jane's Intelligence Review - Traditionally viewed as a problem affecting the Middle East and South Asia, the threat posed by suicide terrorism is spreading around the globe. Rohan Gunaratna assesses the nature of the threat, preventive and reactive security measures, and examines future trends.
- Rational Fanatics - A suicide terrorist is almost always the last link in a long organizational chain that involves numerous actors. Once the decision to launch a suicide attack has been made, its implementation requires at least six separate operations: target selection, intelligence gathering, recruitment, physical and "spiritual" training, preparation of explosives, and transportation of the suicide bombers to the target area. Such a mission often involves dozens of terrorists and accomplices who have no intention of committing suicide, but without whom no suicide operation could take place.
- Landscapes of Crime: Table of Contents
- The Information Technology, War And Peace Project - With support from the Ford Foundation, the Project on Information Technology, War and Peace (itwp) has been established to track the effects of Information Technology (IT) on traditional statecraft and new forms of networked global politics. Itwp supports and seeks to extend networks of knowledge and authority that are working to preempt and to resolve conflicts enabled by hate media, virtual war, and other bellicose uses of information technology.
- Power Shift - The end of the Cold War has brought no mere adjustment among states but a novel redistribution of power among states, markets, and civil society. National governments are not simply losing autonomy in a globalizing economy. They are sharing powers -- including political, social, and security roles at the core of sovereignty -- with businesses, with international organizations, and with a multitude of citizens groups, known as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The steady concentration of power in the hands of states that began in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia is over, at least for a
- Hyperdemocracy - Washington isn't dangerously disconnected from the people; the trouble may be it's too plugged in.
- Special Forces of the World Links
- Canada's Joint Task Force Two (JTF2)
- Special Forces of the World
- Special Ops Links
- Virtual World of Intelligence: Military
- Defence Planning Guidance documents - DPG 2001 provides a framework for translating Government direction as established in the Defence White Paper into a capable and efficient Defence Services Program that delivers affordable multi-purpose, combat capable armed forces for Canada. It also provides Level One organizations including Environmental Chiefs of Staff (ECSs) and Group Principals with strategic level guidance for Fiscal Years 2001-2002 through 2005-2006 and beyond.
- The New Longbow - Transparency is the new military buzzword. If one side sees where the other side is all the time, or the inverse, blinds the other sides' command and communications structure, computer-guided munitions can wreak havoc. NATO's air assault against Serbia laid bare the vulnerability of any nation unable to fight a networked war. The Internet is the mother of all networks. It may well prove the mother of all battlefields as well.
Look to history. The English longbow plied by yeomen ended the military power and social reign of knights. "Shining" armor fell to a taut string, a cured piece of wood, and a tipped arrow. The military dynamic of the Middle Ages - knight, squire, and armorer - ceased.
Air power launched from carriers (knights of the sea) in World War II determined who ruled the waves. Today, low-flying missiles like the Exocet are the naval equivalent of the longbow for developing nations facing nuclear-powered aircraft carriers.
Rogue nations can run espionage/terrorist rings with a few individuals using laptop computers, (the hacker's longbow) bringing down entire networks. A networked war turns the Internet's ability to connect anyone to everyone, anywhere, on its head.
- Strategies for Studying Causation in Complex Ecological Political Systems - This paper shows that some commonly advocated methodological principles of modern political science are inappropriate for the study of complex ecological-political systems. It also provides conceptual tools for thinking about the causal roles of environmental and demographic factors, and it discusses various strategies for hypothesis and inference testing.
- Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy - Netwar is an emerging mode of conflict in which the protagonists - ranging from terrorist and criminal organizations on the dark side, to militant social activists on the bright side - use network forms of organization, doctrine, strategy, and technology attuned to the information age. The practice of netwar is well ahead of theory, as both civil and uncivil society actors are increasingly engaging in this new way of fighting. We suggest how the theory of netwar may be improved by drawing on academic perspectives on networks, especially those about organizational network analysis. As for practice, strategists and policymakers in Washington and elsewhere have begun to discern the dark side of the network phenomenon - especially in the wake of the "attack on America" perpetrated apparently by Osama bin Laden's terror network. But they still have much work to do to begin harnessing the bright side, by formulating strategies that will enable state and civil-society actors to work together better. This paper is largely drawn (with updates added) from Chapter 10 of our forthcoming book, Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy.
- The Advent of Netwar - online RAND report.
- Countering the New Terrorism - online RAND report.
- Network, Netwars, and the Fight for the Future
- Netwars and Activists Power on the Internet
- Armed Forces Network - Military History
- War, Peace & Security Server: Military History
- Lincoln and Welland Regt. - Military and Related Links
- The RMA Debate: Asymmetric Warfare
- The RMA Debate: Online Books
- The Global Technology Revolution - A global technology revolution is leading to social, economic, political, and personal change throughout the world. Like the agricultural and industrial revolutions of the past, this technology revolution has the potential to transform human quality of life and lifespan, transform work and industry, reshuffle wealth, shift power among nations and within nations, and increase tension and conflict. This book discusses the broad trends in this revolution, including genomics, cloning, biomedical engineering, smart materials, agile manufacturing, nanofabricated computation devices, and integrated microsystems.
The revolution's effects on human health may be the most startling as breakthroughs improve both the quality and length of human life. Biotechnology will also enable us to identify, understand, manipulate, improve, and control living organisms (including ourselves). Information technology is already revolutionizing our lives, especially in the developed world, and is a major enabler of other trends. Materials technology will produce products, components, and systems that are smaller, smarter, multi-functional, environmentally compatible, more survivable, and customizable. In addition, smart materials, agile manufacturing, and nanotechnology will change the way we produce devices and improve their capabilities.
The technology revolution will not be uniform in its effect across the globe but will play out differently depending on its acceptance, investment, and a variety of issues such as bioethics, privacy, economic disparity, cultural invasion, and social reactions. There will be no turning back, however, since some societies will avail themselves of the revolution, and globalization will change the environment in which each society lives.
- The Precipice Problem: A Guide to the Destabilization of Western Civilization - Given the 9/11 attack, this article is remarkably prescient.
It has rapidly become possible for a small group of knowledgeable and skilled individuals to create chaos, wreak havoc, destabilize, and potentially destroy what is currently referred to as 'Western Civilization.'
- Canadian Army Land Force Tactical Doctrine And Manoeuvre Warfare
- Military Studies
- Chinese Views of Future Warfare - This collection of articles was made possible through a process that began in March 1995, when the President of the Chinese Academy of Military Science hosted a delegation of the Atlantic Council of the United States in Beijing. Over 4 days, our delegation met with more than 50 Chinese strategic experts including Defense Minister General Chi Haotian. This unprecedented visit provided the opportunity to obtain 100 Chinese military books and professional military journals. One journal, China Military Science, published by the Academy of Military Science, is the source of most of the articles in this collection. The remaining articles are from the Liberation Army Daily newspaper and several books published by the Chinese military press. China Military Science features articles by authors with many different approaches to thinking about future warfare. In fact, the journal's editor told me in Beijing that he selects a variety of articles for each issue from many schools of thought. Interestingly, he even publishes several articles in each issue about the continuing relevance of ancient strategic theories. Most of this collection of articles about future warfare by senior Chinese military authors first appeared in 1994 to 1996. They were selected within certain strict Chinese rules that China places on foreign access to military publications. During four trips to the Academy of Military Science in Beijing, 10 Chinese senior military officers were interviewed regarding Chinese views of future warfare and queried about China's most insightful or most authoritative military authors for me to translate for the National Defense University Press. I explained that China's best professional military writing about the future ought to become better known in the United States where, by default, the perception exists that China lacks a vision of the nature of future warfare.
- Bibliography: Clausewitz, Military Theory, and Nonlinearity
- Clausewitz and Complexity - A growing number of writers have noted the interesting--and useful--congruence between Clausewitz's world-view and that of modern nonlinear science and of Complexity theorists. Because this way of approaching Clausewitz is so different from the traditional military and historical approach, The Clausewitz Homepage has created this separate section devoted to its pursuit. Many of the items linked are also part of the traditional section.
- Information Warfare: Bibliography
- Legal Implications Of Information Warfare - This paper examines the international legal implications of information warfare and its basic underlying concepts. As the author points out, we have entered the information age. The US military is the most information dependent force in the world and also the most networked. Add to that the United States' dependence on computers and computer networks for banking, communication, stock exchanges, transportation, air traffic control, and it is obvious that, in the words of the Director of the National Security Agency, "we've become the most vulnerable nation on earth."
Infowar, the ability to destroy or disrupt these networks, has become a major security challenge. Individuals, terrorists, or foreign countries capable of penetrating these infosystems could wreak havoc with our national defense and civilian infrastructures. How does the Law of War and other international law limit this new form of warfare? That question provides the focus for this paper, which raises many issues with no clear legal precedent. In this new arena, the author advocates applying existing law to fill gaps as they are identified, while trying to develop and adapt the law to the changed environment.
- Fourth Generation Warfare - Roughly speaking, "fourth generation warfare" includes all forms of conflict where the other side refuses to stand up and fight fair. What distinguishes 4GW from earlier generations is that typically at least one side is something other than a military force organized and operating under the control of a national government, and one that often transcends national boundaries.
- U.S. Marine Corps Doctrine Division - Our mission is to coordinate development, publication, and maintenance of Marine Corps Service doctrine; coordinate Service input to the development, publication, and maintenance of joint, combined multi-Service, and naval doctrine; and to participate in matters of standardization, terminology, and other combat development system processes.
- The New Geography of Conflict - In October 1999, in a rare alteration of U.S. military geography, the Department of Defense reassigned senior command authority over American forces in Central Asia from the Pacific Command to the Central Command. This decision produced no headlines or other signs of interest in the United States but nevertheless represented a significant shift in American strategic thinking. Central Asia had once been viewed as a peripheral concern, a remote edge of the Pacific Command's main areas of responsibility (China, Japan, and the Korean Peninsula). But the region, which stretches from the Ural Mountains to China's western border, has now become a major strategic prize, because of the vast reserves of oil and natural gas thought to lie under and around the Caspian Sea. Since the Central Command already controls the U.S. forces in the Persian Gulf region, its assumption of control over Central Asia means that this area will now receive close attention from the people whose primary task is to protect the flow of oil to the United States and its allies.
- Terrorism, Chaos Theory and the United Nations World Court - The developing scientific and mathematical field of chaos theory has important lessons to teach us as we attempt to respond in an effective manner to the horrendous terrorist acts of September 11, 2001. Simply stated, chaos theory shows that systems can evolve in unpredictable ways and that introducing changes into a system with the goal of producing a positive result can instead produce undesirable outcomes. This insight would suggest that, rather than the United States issuing an ultimatum to the Taliban rulers of Afganistan demanding that they turn over terrorist leader Bin Laden or face invasion, which carries with it the risk of igniting an ever increasing spiral of violence, there is a more effective way to achieve our goal of bringing Bin Laden to justice.
The terrorist attacks killed over six thousand people, citizens of more than sixty nations. Such attacks, if left unchecked, threaten the safety of people all around the world. Thus these heinous crimes are clearly an attack, not just against the United States, but against all of humanity, and should be investigated by the United Nations World Court in the Hague as crimes against humanity. Warrants should be issued for the arrest of those responsible, and the international community, under the auspices of the United Nations, should be authorized to bring these criminals to justice. This approach is being used successfully to hold Slobodan Milosevic accountable for the atrocities he and his supporters committed in Yugoslavia.
- IWS - The Information Warfare Site - IWS - The Information Warfare Site is an online resource that aims to stimulate debate about a range of subjects from information security to information operations and e-commerce. It is the aim of the site to develop a special emphasis on offensive and defensive information operations. IWS first went online in December 1999. Since its launch it has undergone a complete redesign and many key texts have been added. In adherence to its founding principles IWS has developed a discussion forum and a mailing list to enable a more interactive debate.
- Revolution in Military Affairs, RMA, information war, asymmetric warfare, online articles, resources - Welcome ... to the RMA Debate page -- your gateway to full-text online resources about the revolution in military affairs, information war, and asymmetric warfare.
The idea of a Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) has firmly captured center stage in the US post-Cold War policy debate. Along with the related notions of information war and asymmetric warfare, the RMA concept has set the terms for discussing America's future security challenges and military requirements. The implications for defense policy are profound -- and yet there is little consensus on the meaning of these concepts, their inter-relationship, or their implications. The character, pace, and scope of the RMA remain at issue. Indeed, even the extent to which the concept of military revolution describes current, real-world trends remains unresolved. It is not surprising therefore that RMA-related concepts have been employed in support of widely divergent approaches to defense modernization. Of equal concern is the failure thus far of the RMA discussion to adequately address the likely implications of a RMA for arms control, diplomacy, alliance relationships, and international law.
The RMA Debate page aims to broaden the discussion of today's putative military revolution and refocus it on outstanding issues. We will facilitate access to the best full-text resources and online research about the RMA that the Web has to offer, featuring both advocates and skeptics of all stripes. Rather than seeking consensus we will pursue its prerequisite: an open and vigorous public debate. In this spirit we call attention especially to our collections of critical commentary: Program Assessments, Second Thoughts on the RMA, and RMA Outside the West.
- Key to Winning Strategic Information War Lies in Network Sovereignty - This article, written by Cao Lugong and carried in the Liberation Army Daily, runs in part as follows:The information society is, in essence, a network society. Since the early 1990s, various countries have attached great importance to the construction of computer network. At the same time, going online has become a fad. The number of internet users is estimated at 400 million and the global E-business will reach US$1000 billion this year. China's internet users now numbers nearly 10 million, the figure is expected to reach 100 million by the year 2010, marking the beginning of China's entry into a network society.
Network has become a new basic point for the development and prosperity of a country and nation, at the same time, it is also pregnant with a new crisis for them. Experts have pointed out: Only by establishing an independent national information network while making use of the internet and instituting the pattern of "one country, two networks", can the security interest of our country and nation be guaranteed under the new opening situation. Globalization or an "earth village" does not at all mean universal harmony in the world.
- The Revolution in Military Affairs: What should the CF do about it?
- A Future for the Reserves? - In 1969 the Commander of Mobile Command decreed that reserve soldiers would not be permitted to undertake classic peacekeeping duties as they were considered incapable of meeting performance requirements. By the late 1990s, however, Canadian militiamen commonly constituted at least 20% of Canadian contingents engaged in peace enforcement operations. Although manpower shortages largely accounted for this substantial change in policy, it also required an attitude adjustment on the part of the regular force establishment. The militia had, after all, been sadly neglected and starved of funds during the years in between. The trend toward an expanded use of reserves is nonetheless likely to continue as the costs associated with the maintenance of regular force personnel become increasingly prohibitive. Arguably, another defence establishment attitude adjustment will also be required to accommodate this trend, which, if anything, has become more universal with the dawn of the millennium. The view that militia force structure is "antiquated and designed to respond to contingencies which, today, are at best remote" conveys both a regular force arrogance and ignorance. Such potentially dangerous short-term thinking, which risks throwing the military baby out with the bathwater, must be replaced with a longer-range vision of national military preparedness.
- Functional Studies--Revolution in Military Affairs and Strategic Futures - Such as the following paper.
- Armed Conflict In The 21st Century: The Information Revolution And Post-Modern Warfare - Within the past decade, the U.S. military has implemented a number of programs to assess the changes underway in the
global security environment and in the nature of warfare. Defense leaders and thinkers have concluded that revolutionary change is taking place and, if the United States develops appropriate technology, warfighting concepts, and military organizations, it can master or control this change, thus augmenting American security.
Dr. Steven Metz suggests that official thinking within the U.S. military may be too narrow. The information revolution,
he contends, will have far-reaching strategic effects. The transformation it brings will not only be technological, but
political, social, ethical and strategic as well. As he explores the impact that the information revolution may have on the conduct of armed conflict, Dr. Metz introduces a number of ideas which need further analysis, including the potential for the emergence of nontraditional, networked enemies; multidimensional asymmetry; the privatization of security; and the potential impact of technologies like robotics, nonlethality, and nanotechnogy. He concludes with an asessment of the features likely to characterize successful militaries in the 21st century.
- Centre For Civil Society - The Centre for Civil Society seeks to improve understanding of the set of organisations located between the market, the state and household institutions that are variously referred to as non-governmental, voluntary, non-profit, or third-sector organisations, foundations, and social enterprises. These institutions are part of a wider civil society and form a social economy of private organisations serving public purposes. The Centre's mission is to become the European academic centre of excellence for the study of civil society, social economy, non-profit, non-governmental or third-sector organisations, and philanthropy.
- Battlefield of the Future - This is a book about strategy and warfighting in the midst of a revolution in military affairs as the world moves into the twenty-first century. The book is composed of 10 essays which treat topics such as military operations against a NBC-arming sponsor of terrorism and intervention (NASTI) state, military strategy, information warfare, biological warfare, and the revolution in military affairs (RMA). The authors are either professional military officers or civilian professionals who specialize in national security issues. The book¹s purpose is to focus attention on the operational, strategy, and threat challenges that will confront US national security decision- makers as they face some of the battlefield of the future.
- Information Warfare - Information warfare is combat operations in a high-tech battlefield environment in which both sides use information-technology means, equipment, or systems in a rivalry over the power to obtain, control, and use information. Information warfare is a combat aimed at seizing the battlefield initiative; with digitized units as its essential combat force; the seizure, control, and use of information as its main substance; and all sorts of information weaponry [smart weapons] and systems as its major means. Information warfare is combat in the area of fire assault and operational command for information acquisition and anti-acquisition; for suppression [neutralization] and antineutralization; for deception and antideception; and for the destruction and antidestruction of information and information sources.
- Review of "The Next World War" - Using the crushing defeat of the Iraqi army in 1991 as his case, Adams argues that future battles will be decided less and less by clashes between mobilized masses of soldiers and equipment and more and more by generals who have just the right information and can use it to put just the right soldiers and just the right equipment in just the right place at just the right time. The mass warfare enabled by the telegraph and the railroad is being replaced by the precision warfare enabled by the satellite uplink and the Internet. And just as their lack of understanding of the then-new mass warfare doomed the then-dominant French in their 1870 war with Prussia, a similar lack of understanding of the new precision warfare could doom the now-dominant United States in...five years? Ten years?
But not only conventional warfare will be changed -- warfare against civilians will be different in the future as well. To the land-based artillery attacks of the 19th century and the air-based bombing raids of the 20th century, Adams adds the cyberspace-based information warfare of the 21st century: Installing viruses into air traffic control software, hacking into pharmaceutical production monitors in order to adulterate medicines, taking down the electrical grid with logic bombs, blowing up gas lines by sabotaging their pressure monitors, and other attacks designed to cause panic by sowing distrust of the computers on which people depend. Warfare of the future will seek to demoralize the civilian population by stealthily and unpredictably striking at the foundations of modern life.
- Getting Ready for the 21st Century - Sailors and Marines around the globe frequently ask me how we are responding to the enormous new challenges we are facing. They wonder if the Navy and Marine Corps will be as capable of winning in the 21st century as we were in the 20th. The answer, I tell them, is contained in Three "Es": We will be engaged; we will use e-commerce; and we will end the conscription mentality.
- The Evolving Battlefield - National defense with maximum precision and minimum unintended damage should be an attractive challenge for scientists seeking to improve the human condition.
- American Control of outer Space in the Third Millenium - Space operations are emerging as one of the distinctive attributes of the sole remaining superpower. While a few other countries conduct military, civil or commercial space programs of some significance, no country can meaningfully contest American dominance of any of these sectors, and surely no other country could rival American dominance of the full spectrum of space operations.
This full-spectrum dominance is both the hallmark and the instrumentality of the American superpower. The United States currently conducts space launches at an average rate of roughly one each week, as many as the rest of humanity combined. And space activities are central to a diverse range of American global management strategies, ranging from the expansion of international telecommunications to non-proliferation policy and regional peacemaking operations.
- The Cultural Challenge of Information Technology - There has been increasing speculation over the past several years that rapid advances in information technologies will enable tremendous leaps in future combat systems performance. Perhaps the most significant development is the prospect that new high-data-rate communications satellites will soon offer worldwide wireless information transmission capacities that can fully exploit the tremendous speed of modern information processing. If achieved, this "bandwidth on demand" will allow virtually unlimited amounts of information to be exchanged in real time between positions anywhere on the globe.
Since it was first introduced just over a century ago, wireless radio has been used by militaries to link together geographically scattered platforms for mutual coordination and support. Given limitations on data-transmission capacity, range, and reliability, military operations have been characterized by largely autonomous multipurpose platforms or units operating in relative independence of one another. However, the prospect of unlimited bandwidth is now stimulating efforts aimed at creating a fully integrated operational network of widely dispersed sensors, weapons, and command entities that will effectively function as a single combat unit--the so-called "system of systems." This is a central goal for future U.S. military forces, articulated in the 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review, the Joint Chiefs of Staff "Joint Vision 2010," and the individual service visions. Some predict that creation of this system of systems will lead in the relatively near term to transition from military operations based on the coordinated actions of individual platforms to an approach centered on the network itself--what is being called "network-centric warfare."
- Application of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles in Future Battles of the Subcontinent - The experiences of the Gulf and Kosovo Wars brought several strategies to the forefront, and the supremacy of air power was clearly established. While strategic air power cannot win the battle all by itself, as was also clearly established in the Gulf War, air power made it easy for the ground forces to complete the annihilation of the Iraqi Army. That is why the war strategists do not have any doubt that some form of air power will decide the course of future battles. Such deliberations naturally bring the factor of the unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) to the forefront. The UCAV has not only the attraction of keeping combat casualties low but overcomes many human limitations. The unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be smaller, faster and more agile than manned fighters. Such unmanned vehicles could be used in preference to manned flights in a dense air defence battle space optimised by low looking radars and QRMs (quick reaction missiles). They will be very useful in keeping long vigil on enemy activities and passing on information to the command posts. The UCAV concept is technically feasible. UCAVs can meet the operational needs and fit into a sound plan of operations. Historical biases for manned aircraft should not be a stumbling block for embracing this technology in the futuristic technology driven wars. These forces need to be understood and their application made accordingly. No doubt, the Indian Air Force has taken a step in the right direction by inducting them in its force structure.
- Strategic Capability Planning - This CF Strategic Capability Planning paper (SCP) describes a new, capability-based, long-range force development process for DND/CF. The SCP paper begins by describing the considerations salient to the planning of future Canadian forces, and then outlines the process to be employed by DND/CF to guide force development. There is no one 'right answer' - force development is as much an art as a science.
Capabilities will be produced in a variety of ways. A traditional approach involves the purchase of new or replacement equipment. The SCP process also seeks to support other efforts to develop capability - innovative training or educational concepts, for example - or by changing the way the military conducts its operations: supporting the introduction of new doctrine is but one of many possibilities. There are numerous approaches to producing capability, and the SCP process seeks to provide the requisite flexibility to find the most effective way to provide a necessary capability. This inevitably results in a process that is more in the nature of a guideline than a prescription. This reflects the nature of future planning in an uncertain environment.
- What Does Chaos Theory Mean For Warfare - For the last 30 years, the study of chaos has intrigued investigators, prompting many to see a great future for the study and application of chaos theory. In science and engineering, chaos theory has significantly improved our understanding of phenomena ranging from turbulence to weather to structural dynamics. Chaos theory has even been used to drastically improve our ability to control some dynamic systems. In the social sciences, there has been considerable interest in whether social phenomena, previously thought to be random, have an underlying chaotic order. Several mathematical tests for chaotic behavior have been applied to historical data from both the stock market and cotton prices. These tests indicate that these economic phenomena are chaotic and so have a deterministic basis (i.e., are governed by rules) as opposed to being random. Naturally, this has received some business attention, and at least two firms are now using chaos theory to guide their financial advice.
There is evidence that warfare might also be chaotic. First, strategic decision making, an integral part of war, has been found to be chaotic. Second, nonlinearity, which is a requirement for chaotic behavior, appears to be a natural result of Clausewitzian friction. Third, some computer war games and arms race simulations have been found to exhibit chaotic behavior. Fourth, previous work by the current authors applied several tests for chaos to historical data related to war. Those tests demonstrated that warfare is chaotic at the grand strategic, strategic, and operational levels.
- The Urban Battlefield And The Army: Changes And Doctrines - According to some writers, what has been termed the urban battlefield made its appearance with the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War. In an earlier era, armies laid siege to cities but did battle in the countryside. In recent decades, however, there have been an ever increasing number of instances of combat taking place in urban areas, to the point that today the city and the battlefield have become inseparable realities. Too long a part would be required to explain the reasons for this change, but it is evident that large cities are now key military objectives, even in third world countries, because that is where one finds the major centres of population, wealth, transportation, mass media and warehousing of goods. Moreover, the military strength of western countries, especially the US, makes it all but impossible for an unsophisticated 'enemy' to hope for victory on a traditional battlefield.
- The Urban Operations Journal - This site is designed as an online aid and web portal for members of United States, allied and coalition military services researching urban military operations. The intended audience also includes civilian members of the U.S. Department of Defense and defense contractors who are attempting to find solutions to the problems inherent to this most difficult operating environment.
- The Non-Linear Dynamics of War - This paper is about two seemingly antithetical concepts, stability and adaptability in war, as viewed from the perspective of non-linear dynamics. The application of non-linearity, chaos and complexity theory to warfare has enjoyed some attention during the past decade and has the overall positive benefit of causing us to rethink our basic warfighting assumptions. This paper strives to add to that effort and discuss some aspects of nonlinear dynamics that have not been covered before, specifically the relationship between stability and adaptability. It will first contrast linearity with non-linearity. It will then explore in more depth the non-linear concepts of bifurcation, control parameters, and fitness landscapes along with their ramifications for the evolution of military thought. It does not seek to equate linear with bad, and non-linear with good. This judgmental ascription does not serve the cause, which is to increase the options available so that we can better adapt to changing external circumstances.
- Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS) - This project examines how three-dimensional strategic and tactical information can be transferred between a command center and individual warfighters who are operating in an urban environment. It is a multi-disciplinary research project that encompasses a number of research and technical issues. These include: (i) the design of novel user interfaces; (ii) the design of new interaction methods; (iii) the development of an interactive, scalable three-dimensional environment; (iv) tracking and registration systems of sufficient accuracy; (v) develop a prototype demonstration system.
- Military applications of virtual reality - One of the first areas where virtual reality found practical application is in military training and operations. In this article, we will explore three views of military applications of virtual reality; as a simulation of reality, as an extension of human senses through telepresence, and as an information enhancer through augmented reality.
- Wealth, Power, and the Information Revolution: A Review Essay - The Information Revolution is fast becoming the El Niño of international relations, a phenomenon blamed or praised for myriad developments, tensions, and forces in world affairs - no matter how disparate. It has been identified as a key force for international amity and war, for democratization and autocracy, for sustained economic growth and profound economic instability, for empowering the powerless and increasing elite control. The velocity of global change, according to this perspective, is somehow seen to be propelled by the Information Revolution's currents or restrained by its undertow.
To paraphrase Winston Churchill, rarely has so much been attributed by so many to a force so little understood. Indeed, not only is there disagreement about the directions it will lead, there is also no consensus on how to define this vast wave of technological change. What this review refers to as the Information Revolution has been tagged with numerous other labels, including Cyberspace, the Emerging Infosphere, the Network Era, the Digital Revolution, the Information Economy, the Information and Communications Technologies Revolution, the Age of Networked Intelligence, and many others. It has been analyzed as a process and as an outcome; it has been equated with globalization, interdependence, and universalism; it has been seen as a cause and an effect, an independent and a dependent variable.
- Information Technologies and the Future of Land Warfare - This report documents and expands on the principal findings of a two-day RAND workshop conceived and sponsored by TRADOC, the Army's Training and Doctrine Command, to explore the potential impacts of the rapidly expanding information technologies upon the future of land warfare. It describes changes in the information technologies, speculates on their implications for the Army's environment, and explores new concepts for Army operations and organizations. The report should be of interest to Army leaders, to developers of Army doctrine and systems, and, more generally, to military analysts and planners.
- Military Doctrine
- Contents of A Short History of War - online book.
- Nature of War - a collection of weblinks.
- Clausewitz Homepage - The Prussian military thinker Carl von Clausewitz is widely acknowledged as the most important of the major strategic theorists. Even though he's been dead for over a century-and-a-half, he remains the most frequently cited, the most controversial, and in many respects the most modern. This website is intended as a central source for information, articles, and arguments about the man and his ideas. It is designed to accommodate anyone interested in understanding human strategies, including not only scholarly researchers on Clausewitz but also students and faculty in professional military education (PME) institutions, business schools, and other organizations concerned with human competition and conflict.
- Revolution in Military Affairs, RMA, information war, asymmetric warfare, online articles, resources - Welcome...to the RMA Debate page -- your gateway to full-text online resources about the revolution in military affairs, information war, and asymmetric warfare.
The idea of a Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) has firmly captured center stage in the US post-Cold War policy debate. Along with the related notions of information war and asymmetric warfare, the RMA concept has set the terms for discussing America's future security challenges and military requirements. The implications for defense policy are profound -- and yet there is little consensus on the meaning of these concepts, their inter-relationship, or their implications. The character, pace, and scope of the RMA remain at issue. Indeed, even the extent to which the concept of military revolution describes current, real-world trends remains unresolved. It is not surprising therefore that RMA-related concepts have been employed in support of widely divergent approaches to defense modernization. Of equal concern is the failure thus far of the RMA discussion to adequately address the likely implications of a RMA for arms control, diplomacy, alliance relationships, and international law.
- Synthesis: Ground Zero, the Internet, and Networked Society - The following issues will be discussed:
- How did the internet fare as a tool in these intense and extreme circumstances: did it play a role as a mature and professional medium
- We will particularly look at the aspects of cyber-conflict and cyber-war
- Can the notion of a 'networked' society shed any additional light on the events, and what are some of manyfold impacts
- Was there some quality content available that illuminates the events in ways not readily available in offline media?
- Did other technologies play a role?
- A regressive crystallisation of global state power: theorising the 'war against terrorism' - As the world lurches into what is called a new type of war, everyone inevitably falls back on old emotional, moral and intellectual resources for their sense of what is happening and to make their own response. Every war is new in some significant way, and in any case we have been here before: in the last decade over the Gulf and Kosovo, the two occasions on which the West made war (as opposed to intervening less decisively in pre-existing conflicts). War stirs, moreover, powerful memories of still older conflicts, such as the Second World War and Vietnam. All of us have feelings and beliefs shaped partly by all these earlier events, which come into play in this supposedly new situation.
- Domestic Operations: The Canadian Approach - The application of military force by a democratic government within the confines of its borders, and in some cases against its citizenry, has long been a controversial and politically sensitive topic. Though that is not a new type of operation for either the American or the Canadian military establishments, the nature of the threats each is being asked to confront has evolved. The threats now include (in addition to natural disasters and minor urban unrest) cult groups armed with weapons of mass destruction, agents of narco-parastates in Latin and South America, organized and armed urban unrest, and the violent potential of private paramilitary groups. It is safe to assert that threats to North American domestic security will increase in nature, scope, and number in the next century. This in turn will presumably prompt more debate on and calls for an increase in the military's role in containing and neutralizing those threats.
- Onward Cyber Soldiers - In a secure vault in the u.s. army's super-secret Intelligence and Security Command in northern Virginia, Colonel Mike Tanksley sketches the barest outlines of the new Armageddons. These are only "What ifs?" he insists, so there cannot really be details. Yet his war scenario resounds with almost biblical force. The next time a tyrant out of some modern Babylon (Baghdad, Tehran or Tripoli, for example) threatens an American ally (Riyadh, Cairo, Jerusalem) the U.S. doesn't immediately send legions of soldiers or fleets of warships. Instead Washington visits upon the offending tyranny a series of thoroughly modern plagues, born of mice, video screens and keyboards.
First, a computer virus is inserted into the aggressor's telephone-switching stations, causing widespread failure of the phone system. Next, computer logic bombs, set to activate at predetermined times, destroy the electronic routers that control rail lines and military convoys, thus misrouting boxcars and causing traffic jams. Meanwhile, enemy field officers obey the orders they receive over their radios, unaware the commands are phony. Their troops are rendered ineffective as they scatter through the desert. U.S. planes, specially outfitted for psychological operations, then jam the enemy's TV broadcasts with propaganda messages that turn the populace against its ruler. When the despot boots up his PC, he finds that the millions of dollars he has hoarded in his Swiss bank account have been zeroed out. Zapped. All without firing a shot. A glow comes over Colonel Tanksley as he talks about this bloodless retribution. "We may be able to stop a war before it starts," he says. Or, more likely, wage war in a whole new way.
- The Tactical Infosphere - The rapid evolution of information technologies is having a dramatic effect on the development of command information systems. The so-called information superhighway, the internet and its high-speed communications links, has created an integrated information net that can be accessed by most elements of society worldwide. Computers and communications devices are becoming integrated, lighter and smaller, and they consume less power with each successive generation.
- Canadian Land Forces 21 (CLF 21): A Multi-Purpose Force for the Next Century - Unfortunately, the combat capabilities of our ground forces are limited and that restrains the range of tasks they can assume with acceptable risks as the Land Forces are acutely aware. The Land Forces have acquired recently up-to-date APCs/IFVs (the LAV III) as well as a sophisticated recce vehicle (the Coyote), but they still remain without any credible direct fire support vehicle or main battle tank (MBT). Their artillery support is limited in the calibre of mortars (81mm) and the variety of artillery systems (light 105mm howitzers, and 155mm howitzers). Finally, their mechanized units operate a variety of tracked and wheeled vehicles, a condition that does not ease combined arms and logistics. This would have been enough to complicate the participation of Canadian ground forces in the Gulf in 1991. But since then the problem has worsened as some of our close allies, namely the United States and Great Britain have kept modernizing their forces, thus widening the capability gap that separates us from them.
- On-line Papers & Briefs (land warfare & complexity related)
- Theory of Knowledge, and War - A unified theory, by definition, takes elements of existing theories and ties them together to produce a complete picture. The epitome is the unified theory of physics that will tie together gravitation and electromagnetism and explain the formation and behavior of everything from quarks to quasars. Is a unified theory of war possible?
War, we recognize, is not physics--but as physicists collect observations about the mechanics of the world, so too we collect observations about the mechanics of war. And while war, being the clash of human-led forces, does not lend itself to mathematical certainty or even precision in the same way science does, it would be remarkable if the range of military theory, experience, and wisdom could be distilled into a single package.
So a unified theory of war may be possible, even if implausible. Combining existing theories into new entities may improve our ability to plan and execute, as well as predict the outcome of, campaigns and battles. And even if we do not reach that single overarching theory, the mental exercise may still benefit those of us whose natural aptitude for war will never measure up to history¹s great commanders. This exercise, even if it ultimately fails, may give us at least a glimmer of that quality known as coup d'oeil.
This "stroke of the eye," the ability of a commander to see through the trivial to the critical elements of a battle, was intimated by Japanese warrior Miyamoto Musashi when he wrote, "The principle of strategy is having one thing, to know ten thousand things."1 Though Musashi did not know the term coup d'oeil, Carl von Clausewitz did, and appreciated the advantage it conferred on the warrior. He wrote: "If the mind is to emerge unscathed from this relentless struggle with the unforeseen, two qualities are indispensable: first, an intellect that, even in the darkest hour, retains some glimmerings of the inner light which leads to truth; and second, the courage to follow this faint light wherever it may lead. The first of these qualities is described by the French term, coup d'oeil; the second is determination.
- Military Geography-Contents - Parts One and Two, both of which are primers, view physical and cultural geography from military perspectives. Part Three probes the influence of political-military geography on service roles and missions, geographic causes of conflict, and complex factors that affect military areas of responsibility. Part Four describes analytical techniques that relate geography to sensible courses of military action, then puts principles into practice with two dissimilar case studies--one emphasizes geographic influences on combat operations, while the other stresses logistics. Each chapter terminates with key points, which final reflections reinforce and relate to time-tested Principles of War.
The text at no time tells readers what to think. It simply tells them how, in jargon-free terms that disregard technical details (neither British Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig nor corporals who led his squads through Flanders fields in 1917 cared a whit whether Passchendaele Ridge was a product of tectonic upheaval or glacial depositions). Concise historical examples and the probable influence of technological trends help illuminate past, present, and future relationships between geography and military affairs. Notes at the end of each chapter encourage students of the subject to pursue topics of particular interest in greater breadth and depth. Maps and figures are plentiful throughout, but readers nevertheless should keep a world atlas handy.
Military Geography for Professionals and the Public, which considers every form of warfare and every military service at strategic, operational, and tactical levels, is intended for audiences abroad as well as in the United States, and therefore is generally couched in generic terms. Consequently, its contents should be almost as sound at the end of the 21st century as at the beginning, regardless of political, military, economic, social, scientific, technological, and other changes in this volatile world that inevitably will occur during the next ten decades.
- P2P Goes To War - For several decades, the military has been using large-scale client-server systems to build networked environments where soldiers can train in simulated battle conditions. Now the military is looking at peer-to-peer technology as a way to build these simulations without a vulnerable central server. Michael Macedonia, the Chief Scientist and Technical Director for the U.S. Army Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM), talks with O'Reilly editor Richard Koman about how the military simulates battle, how peer-to-peer technology could change that, and the advances that have made a $69 flight simulator program as valuable as the multimillion dollar systems of a few years ago.
- Strategic Geography And The Greater Middle East - Occupying a pivotal position at the juncture of Europe, Africa, and Asia, the "Greater Middle East" - here defined as the sum of the core Middle East, North Africa, the African Horn, South Asia, and ex-Soviet Central Asia - likewise occupies a crucial position with respect to some of the major issue areas of the contemporary era. Those issue areas are energy sources and availability; the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their delivery systems; and the dangerous pairings involving Israel and the Arabs, Iran and Iraq, and India and Pakistan. Surely, this region in its aggregate has come to be viewed by the contending and aspiring world powers - the United States, Russia, a united Europe, China - as a strategic prize, maybe the strategic prize.
The geographic aspects of these issues can be analyzed by moving from macro to micro, from grand strategy to operations and tactics (climate and terrain). The new missile programs involving WMD do not easily fit within this framework but apply across issues.
- Beyond Militarism, Arms Races and Arms Control - The Cold War could be described as the final stage of what has come to be known as modernity, or to use Anthony Giddens' terminology, the final stages of the first phase of modernity. By modernity, I mean that period of human development that began somewhere between the fifteenth and the eighteenth centuries, characterised by the development of science and technology, the nation state, modern industry, and, I would argue, Clausewitzean or modern war. By modern war, I mean war between states, fought by armed forces, for state interest; the type of war that was theorised so brilliantly by Clausewitz. The development of modern war cannot be disentangled from the development of modern states. It was in war that European states, which were to provide the model for other states, established their monopoly of organised violence within the territorial confines of the state; they eliminated competitors, centralised administration, increased taxation and forms of borrowing, and, above all, created an idea of the state as the organisation responsible for protection of borders against other states and for upholding a rule of law within the state. The sharp distinctions between the military and civilians, public and private, internal and external, are a product of these developments. As Charles Tilly put it in a famous phrase: 'States made war and war made the state'.
- Information Warfare Research Center - Recognizing the emerging threat to U.S. national security posed by information warfare, the Terrorism Research Center created an Information Warfare Research Center in November 1996. The goal of the Information Warfare Research Center is to provide timely and useful information on the following subjects:
- Information Assurance
- Information Warfare
- Information Terrorism
- Information Security
- Critical Infrastructure Protection
- The Information Revolution and the Destiny of America - The growing predominance of networked information systems challenges the American government to find the best means to harness the power of the information revolution to promote US diplomatic and military goals. In this article, edited by John Godges of the RAND Review, RAND researchers explore the needs of a national "information strategy" and suggest an innovative approach, which they dub "noopolitik."
- The Future of the City - Looking at the Future of the City requires that we take account of where we have been, where we are, and where we want to be. There is nothing automatic or arbitrary about this process, unless we choose it to be so.
- The Terrorism Research Center - Recognizing the emerging threat to U.S. national security posed by information warfare, the Terrorism Research Center created an Information Warfare Research Center in November 1996. The goal of the Information Warfare Research Center is to provide timely and useful information on the following subjects:
- Information Assurance
- Information Warfare
- Information Terrorism
- Information Security
- Critical Infrastructure Protection
- Governing the network society - Governing the network society: Should we look for meta-rules? What has changed is not only the surface, is not
only the lower expectation towards the state and its possibilities.
What has really and deeply changed is our sense for the situation
and the emotions we look to the state. More theoretically spoken a
majority of people out of the western countries has developed new
attitudes and new values, whilst on the other hand the nation states
compete with new actors on a supranational and international level.
- Smart Mobs - The people who make up smart mobs cooperate in ways never before possible because they carry devices that possess both communication and computing capabilities. Their mobile devices connect them with other information devices in the environment as well as with other people's telephones. Dirt-cheap microprocessors embedded in everything from box tops to shoes are beginning to permeate furniture, buildings, neighborhoods, products with invisible intercommunicating smartifacts. When they connect the tangible objects and places of our daily lives with the Internet, handheld communication media mutate into wearable remote control devices for the physical world.
- Network Centric Operations: A Capstone Concept for Naval Operations in the Information Age - The Capstone Concept for Network Centric Operations articulates the United States Navy's path in transformation to Network Centric Operations. The Concept applies the defining tenets of joint and naval warfare to network-centric warfighting and provides a vision of the new capabilities we must achieve. The improvements in our ability to quickly attain and sustain global access as a result of this transformation are critical to enabling our naval forces to decisively influence future events at sea and ashore - Anytime, Anywhere.
Joint Vision 2020, Operational Maneuver from the Sea, and Navy policy and vision statements all point to three inescapable military trends that will shape future operational capabilities:
All underscore the increasing importance of information as a source of power. Information protection, knowledge management, and networked sensor employment and exploitation are vitally important to future warfighters. The Navy must be able to fight for and win the information and knowledge advantage early in any crisis or conflict.
- A shift in emphasis towards joint, effects-based combat
- An increasing reliance on knowledge superiority
- Future adversaries will use technology to make rapid improvements in military capabilities designed to provide asymmetrical counters to U.S. military strengths
- The Imperial Internet: Middle Eastern Internet Traffic and International Relations - Internet connectivity today has vital economic and political implications. In the case of the Middle East, international Internet traffic must first pass via a Western country before returning to the region due to the lack of international exchange points. This networking inefficiency - albeit justified economically - represents one of many new Internet challenges that have foreign policy dimensions, such as access to telecom capacity, and influence on network policies and infrastructure. Developing countries must recognize the new areas of strategic national self-interest inherent in a networked era if they are to protect their sovereignty and economic welfare.
- Geography, National Power, And Strategy - To be effective in dealing with regional crises, military leaders must understand the way in which geography affects strategic and operational planning, tactics,
logistics operations, relations with civilian populations, and the military evaluations of areas.
- The State and the Global Economy - Two notions underlie much of the current discussion about globalization. One is the zero-sum game: whatever the global economy gains, the state loses, and vice-versa. The other is that if an event takes place in a national territory it is a national event, whether a business transaction or a judicial decision. These assumptions about zero-sums and geography influence both experts of the global economy and the general public.
One of the roles of the state vis-a-vis today's global economy, as opposed to earlier phases of the world economy, has been to negotiate the intersection of national law and foreign actors, such as firms, markets and supranational organizations. This condition makes the current phase distinctive. We have, on the one hand, the existence of an enormously elaborate body of law that secures the exclusive territoriality of states to an extent not seen in earlier centuries, and on the other, the considerable institutionalizing of the "rights" of non-national firms, and the growing scope of cross-border transactions and supranational organizations. These new legal frameworks set up the conditions for a necessary engagement by states in the process of globalization.
We generally use terms such as "deregulation," "financial and trade liberalization," and "privatization" to describe the outcome of this negotiation. While these terms capture the withdrawal of the state from regulating its economy, they do not register all the ways that the state participates in setting up new frameworks to further globalization; nor do they capture the associated transformations inside the state. I have long argued that many transactions that are a key part of the global economy either do not cross borders, or do not in ways that investment and trade do. Instead, they are located inside national economies. Furthermore, I have tried to show how even the most digitalized global financial market is grounded in a set of very material resources and spaces largely embedded in national territories.
Besides the new functions of the state there is a new set of intermediary strategic agents that contribute to the management and coordination of the global economy. They are largely, though not exclusively, private. And they have absorbed some of the international functions carried out by states in the recent past, as was the case, for instance, during the predominantly protectionist regimes of the post-World War II decades. The role of these strategic agents is dramatically illustrated by a recent case involving China: when the Chinese government in 1996 issued a hundred-year bond to be sold, not in Shanghai but in New York, it did not have to deal with Washington but J.P. Morgan. This example can be repeated over and over for a broad range of countries.
- The Geography of Terror - As the nation continues to rebound from the aftermath of September 11, 2001, academic geographers and those in the private and public sectors continue to demonstrate how our science and practice can best be used to understand and respond to this adaptive threat. Geography is uniquely suited to enhance and advance our understanding of terrorism. As a discipline, geography has the analytical capabilities to process, analyze, and visualize spatial information in both historical and real-time contexts. At the same time, geography has a cadre of intellectual resources that examine questions related to why terrorism arises in different parts of the world and the underlying social, political, and economic forces that foment it. Finally, and perhaps most significantly, there is a cohort of practitioners of geography who put this knowledge base to use in responding to public policy concerns.
- Royal London Military Institute - A useful site with many links to topics of current military interest as well as providing information on upcoming local (London, ON) military events.
- Swarming on the Battlefield: Past, Present, and Future - The military application of emerging technologies for communications and information processing is likely to change the way military force is managed and applied. One possible change is the reemergence of a doctrine based on swarming, whereby military units organized as networks use dispersed yet integrated operations. This monograph analyzes ten swarming cases throughout history, from Scythian horse archers against a Macedonian phalanx supported by light cavalry, 329-327 B.C., to Somalis surrounding U.S. commandos in a peacekeeping operation in 1993, and applies the conclusions to a discussion of future swarming.