Geology of Cuba

     Map of Cuba - SEG Field Trip
            Map Legend:

    Black vertical/horizontal hatched = ophiolites

    Cyan limestone/brick pattern = Jurassic-Cretaceous continental/platformal carbonates overlain by Late Cretaceous - Eocene olistostromal deposits.

   Yellow horizontal pattern = Northern Cretaceous volcanics and fore-arc or foreland sediments, structurally intercalated with the Northern Ophiolites.

    Red V pattern = Southern Cretaceous arc volcanics; Paeleogene Sierra Maestra arc in the very south-east of Cuba.

    Magenta honeycomb pattern - Mabujina amphibolite complex occurs at the top of the Escambray inverted metamorphic complex.

Most recent reference:
    Kerr, A.C., Iturralde-Vinent, Saudners, A.D., Babbs, T.L., and Tarney, J., 1999, A new plate tectonic model of the Caribbean: implications from a geochemical reconnaissance of Cuban Mesozoic volcanic rocks. BGSA, 111, 11, 1581-1599.

Papers in:

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., ed., 1996, Ofiolitas y Arcos Volcanicos de Cuba, IUGS Project 364: Caribbean Ophiolites and Volcanic Arcs,
    Special Contribution No. 1.

    Iturralde-Vinent, A., 1996. Introduction to Cuban Geology and Geophysics, p. 3-35.

    Rosencrantz, E., Basement Structures and Tectonics in the Yucatan Basin, p. 36-47.

    Iturralde-Vinent, M., Millan, G., Korpas, L., Nagy, E., and Pajon, J., 1996. Geological interpretation of the Cuban K-Ar database, p. 48-69.

    Echarte, M.P., 1996. Zonacion Gravimagnetica y modelo fisico-geologico conceptual del Cinturion Plegado Cubano, p. 70-82.

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., 1996. Geologia de las Ofiolitas de Cuba, p. 83-120.

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., 1996. Magmatismo de margen continental de Cuba, p. 121-130.

    Trujillo, G.M., Geologia del Complejo Mabujina, p. 147-153.

    Ando, J., Harangi, S., Szkmany, B., and Dosztaly, L. 1996. Petrologia de la asociacion ofiolitica de Holguin, p. 154-178.

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., 1996. Cuba: El arco de Islas volcanicas del Cretacico, p. 179-189.

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Vulcanitas de Bahia Honda, La Habana y Matanzas, p. 190-196.
    (Fig 1 shows distribution of granitoids; basement to the arc is thought to be Felicidades, Mabujina, Guira de Jauco, Sierra de Rompe; epiclastic sediments include Bahia Honda, Pina, north of Camaguey, Holguin, and Baraco; effusives occur mostly between Santa Clara and Camaguey- Las Tunas-Holguin; pyroclastic sediments occur at Turquino on the south east coast; Purial is shown as a special case.)

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Region de San Juan y Martinez, p. 197.

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Vulcanitas de Sabana Grande, p; 197.

    Falcon, C. P., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Vulcanitas de la Region de Pina, Ciego de Avila, p. 200.

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Region Ciego-Camaguey-Las Tunas, p. 201-210.

    Trujillo, G.M., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Anfibolitas Sierra de Rompe, p. 211. (amphibolites considered to be equivalent to those of the Mabujina amphibolite complex of Escambray to the west of the Sierra de Rompe.)

    Kozak, M., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Vulcanitas de la region de Holguin, p. 212-217.

    Trujillo, G.M., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Metavulcanitas del Purial, p. 218-221.
( Most easterly Cretaceous arc rocks in Cuba)

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Vulcanitas Cretacicas del Turquino (Sierrra Maestra), p. 222-224. (exposures of Cretaceous arc rocks south of the Paleogene Sierra Maestra arc.)

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Region de Mayari-Baracoa, p. 225-226.

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Evidencias de un arco primitivo (Cretacio Inferior) en Cuba, p. 227-230. (description of localities displaying evidence of early Cretaceous arc activity.)

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., 1996. Estratigrafia del arco volcanico Cretacico en Cuba: Cuba: el archipielago volcanico Paleocene-Eoceno, p. 231-246. (Fig. 6 illustrates the postulate that the late Paleocene Sierra Maestra arc of eastern Cuba formed above a north dipping subduction zone. Axial zone of the arc to the south includes Eocene intrusions; to the north the axial zone is flanked by volcanogenic sediments separating the arc from arc basement to the north. Further North in the area of Holguin rocks of this age (Danian-Lower Eocene) also include carbonates.)

    Notes from the above references:

    Fig. 8, p. 15. The Bahama platform carbonate facies is represented by the Canal Viejo de Bahamas, Cayo Coco, and Remedios belts (lower to middle Jurassic siliciclastics, Late Jurassic evaporites, shallow water Cretaceous carbonates (deep  water in the case of the Cayo Coco, a Paleocoene hiatus, and Eocene calcareous shaly flysch), the slope by the Camajuani Belt (Cretaceous pelagic limstones, shales and cherts, a hiatus, and Paleocene olistostromes), and the deep water basin by the Placetas belt (Grenville basement overlain by Jurassic siliciclastic rocks and Nueva Maria basalts, Cretaceous carbonates, a hiatus, and Paleocene olistostromes. Units of the Guaniguanico also have Jurassic siliciclastic units and basaltic units (El Sabalo rift Fm) but lack the Late Jurassic evaporites of the Bahamas platform rocks.
     The late Jurassic - Cretaceous age units of the Guaniguanico are largely composed of pelagic limestones, separated by a hiatus from sandy-shale flysch, another hiatus, and south to north transgressive olistostromes containing serpentinite debris.  Some coarse grained debris from the Cretaceous arc is present only in the olistostromes of the most southerly located Quninones and Felicidade belts. The Guaniguanico units are dominantly deep water carbonates and correspond most closely to the Placetas belt of the Bahamas Platform. They were originally arranged from south to north in the order: Felicidades mafic volcanic rocks overlain by sediments similar to those of the Rosario belt,  the Quinones belt , Rosario South belt , the Rosario North belts, and the Los Organos belt, originally the most northerly located belt. The highest structural unit, the Felicidades belt, is composed of Aptian-Albian rift and plume Encrucijada basalts overlain by pyroclastic sedimentary rocks.  The highest structural unit in western Cuba are the Bahia Honda and Havana/Matanzas allochthons composed of high-Sr rift and plume Encrucijada basalts, overlain by the late Cretaceous Orozco/Margot  Fm volcanics and volcanogenic sedimentary rocks. These are the most southerly derived units.
The ophiolites are of boninitic to low-K island arc tholeiite type and are therefore similar to Appalachian-Caledonian ophiolites.
      The late Cretaceous-Eocene age of the flysch (distal foreland facies) and olistostromes (proximal foreland facies) indicates that obduction of the overlaying ophiolites began in late Cretaceous time, with imbrication of the carbonate platform, foreland basin sediments, and ophiolites taking place in the Middle Eocene.
 The Pinos terrane includes Jurassic-Cretaceous metasilicicalstics with marbles and a few amphibolites mostly at the top of the sectionCompared with the Organos belt and the Escambray it has a higher proportion of clastics. It underwent late Cretaceous mid-P/Mid-T Barrovian metamorphism and displays a cupular structure with a granite core. To the NW the Sabana Grande is an allochthonous unit of Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks.
      At Escambray the structural succession is Placetas carbonate platform overthust by the Northern ophiolite belt, including the Sagua la Chica pillow lavas, overthrust to the south by a structural succession with polyphase deformed rocks which includestructurally intercalated units of siliciclastics, carbonates, metaophiolites, metaflysch and metavolcanic rocks at the base passing up into the Mabujina amphibolites followed by Cretaceous arc rocks. Both latter units are intruded by Cretaceous arc granitoids (Fig. 1, p. 149). The polydeformed siliciclastic units are undergone pre- and syn-metamorphism. Thrust structures appear to be directed southwards, but this not proven, and metamorphism is pre-Maastrichtian. The structureof the Escambray Mountains is shown in Fig. 9, p. 16 of Iturralde-Vinente. Main question is whether the lateCretaceous arc rocks are allochthonous relative to the Mabujina/Escambray.
      At Camaguey the sequence (Fig. 13, p. 105) is shown as platform overlain by ophiolite, olistostrome and then Cretaceous volcanics to the south. Figure 12  (p. 21) shows the presence of a Santonian-Campanian klippe of arc volcanic rocks, the youngest arc volcanics in the sequence. This relationship is similar to that of the Bahia Honda and the northern ophiolites of the western region.
     In the Holguin region ( Fig 1, 9, p. 155, 212) the autochthonous platformal carbonates are overlain by Paleocene-Eocene sediments, supposedly olistostromes laid down during Middle Eocene thrusting. They are overthrust by Paleogene tectonic breccias made up of Upper Cretaceous 'accretionary prism' rocks, followed to the south by imbricated middle to late Cretaceous volcanics and ophiolites. The Imbricate unit is overlain to the south by Campanian to Maastrichtian sediments, followed by Middle to upper Paleocene olistostromes overlain by Lower to Middle Eocene volcanogenic sediments, interpreted as back-arc sediments of the Sierra Maestra Paleogene arc to the south. The assembly of the intercalated ophiolite and arc allochthon and its emplacment is pre-Paleocene.
    According to Kozak the Holguin region is composed of a melange of slices and blocks of ophiolite, cretaceous arc, and late Cretaceous - Eocene sedimentary rocks.  Between the components of the melange are found late Campanian to Maastrichtian clastic rocks containing fragments of arc rocks.
Volcanism therefore terminated prior to late Campanian.
    In the Baracoa Purial region however, the sequence appears to be (Fig 14, p. 107; Fig. 3a,3b, p. 139) platform rocks, melange (tipo Asuncion-Guira de Jauco) overlain by Cretaceous volcanics followed by olistostrome, with ophiolite at the top. Figure 5c (p. 243) of Iturralde-Vinent shows Lower Eocene (Paleogene volcanics) thrust from the south over ophiolite, itself  thrust over a sequence of south facing and dipping Cretaceous and L-U Eocene sediments. This can be reconciled as out of sequence thrusting of ophiolite over the younger units as in the Fig 14 (p. 107) A-B section.
    Some geological terms in Spanish:

Cuenca antepais - foreland basin; calizas - carbonates; calciruditas - calcirudites; retroarco - back-arc; tobas - pyroclastic; margas - marls?; tufitas - tuffs; conglomerados - conglomerates;
olistostromas - olistostromes; grauvacas - greywackes; escamas - (scales) slices; corrimiento - thrust; planos - planes;
a menudo metamorfizado - often metamorphosed; epiclastico sedimentarias - epiclastic sediments;
dichas - said; ambos - both; mismo - same; decansan - rest (on); sin embargo - however, nevertheless;
mezclar - mix; veces - intercalated; cortes - sections; alto - pronounced; en almohadillas - pillowed;
desarollada - displayed; pobre - poor;llegan - reach; edad - age; a fin de - in order to; fall - fault;triturar - crush; raices (raiz) - roots;

Miscellaneous Papers

 Computerized data processing in regional geochemical exploration of the Sagua-Baracoa Massif, eastern Cuba. Kovacs-Gabor-P; Perez-Gisela; Nunez-Esperanza In: International symposium on Computer applications in geoscience. Huang-Xude (prefacer) Pages 378-380.1991. . Minist. Geol. and Miner. Resour.. Beijing, China. 1991.

    The effect of nickel mining and metallurgical activities on the distribution distribution of heavy metals in Levisa Bay, Cuba. Gonzalez-Humberto; Ramirez-Marta In: Heavy metal aspects of mining pollution and its remediation. Allan-Rod-J (editor); Salomons-Wim (editor) Journal of Geochemical Exploration.52; 1-2, Pages 183-192. 1995.
Comment- The distribution of Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn was investigated in surface and core sediment samples and in the leaves of the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) from Levisa Bay, an area affected by nickel mining and metallurgical activities. The results revealed that these activities have seriously polluted the sediments, especially by Ni, Fe, Co and Mn, with concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from discharge sources. The concentrations of Fe(0.64-22.66%) and Co, Mn and Ni (7.7-324, 125-2957 and 69- 4764 mu g/g, respectively) were up to two orders of magnitude greater than those of non-polluted coastal areas in Cuba. Rhizophora mangle was shown to be a useful useful bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in the studied ecosystem.

    Cuba-Bahamas arc/ margin collision; constraints on timing of suturing. Hempton-Mark Bulletin - Houston Geological Society. 36; 8, Pages 13. 1994.

     Petrochemistry and tectonic significance of Cretaceous island-arc rocks, Cordillera Oriental, Dominican Republic. Lebron-Maria-Cristina; Perfit-Michael-R Tectonophysics.229; 1-2, Pages 69-100. 1994.
Comment-    Cretaceous island-arc rocks of the Caribbean island-arc system have been exposed by Cenozoic faulting in the Cordillera Oriental in eastern Hispaniola. High-K (sub 2) O intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks (Loma la Veg volcanics) are interbedded with marine epiclastic sedimentary rocks and tuffs (Las Guajabas tuffs) and unconformably overlie pre-Aptian sedimentary rocks, low- K (sub 2) O volcanic rocks (Guamira volcanics) and a granodioritic to tonalitic intrusion (El Valle pluton). The petrology and geochemistry of these units, in in conjunction with regional stratigraphic data, are used to speculate on the the tectonics of the newly developing Caribbean island-arc system during Early and Late Cretaceous time. The Loma la Vega volcanics are characterized by the presence of large phenocrysts of sanidine, and minor amounts of clinopyroxene, opaque oxides, and rare leucite in a devitrified matrix of chlorite and clay. Although the volcanic rocks have undergone some low-temperature alteration/metamorphism, which redistributed some major elements and large-ion-lithophile trace elements, the high-field-strength elements, rare-earth elements, and radiogenic isotopes appear to have been minimally affected. Based on abundances of the relatively immobile elements, trace-element enrichment patterns and isotopic compositions, the Loma la Vega volcanics are considered part of the high-K, calc-alkaline (CA) or shoshonitic island-arc volcanic series. In contrast, pre- Aptian (Early Cretaceous?) volcanic and plutonic rocks of the underlying Los Ranchos Formation have chemical characteristics similar to rocks in the island- arc tholeiitic or "primitive island-arc" (PIA) series that form coeval and along-strike sections of the Early Cretaceous Caribbean island arc in other parts of present-day Hispaniola, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. An abrupt and regional change in composition from island-arc tholeiites to high-K, calc-alkaline rocks is coincident with a hypothesized reversal in subduction polarity in pre-Aptian time. As inferred from previously published tectonic models, polarity reversal may have been triggered by attempted subduction of the Caribbean oceanic plateau beneath this segment of the Caribbean island arc. The observed magmatic and tectonic effects of the proposed Cretaceous Caribbean arc reversal are similar to the better documented Neogene subduction subduction reversal event in the Solomon Islands arc in the southwest Pacific.

    Cuban geology; a new plate-tectonic synthesis. Iturralde-Vinent-M-A Journal of Petroleum Geology.17; 1, Pages 39-69. 1994.

    Eclogitic rocks from ophiolitic melange in the Holguin area (Oriente, eastern-Cuba). Szakmany-G; Ando-J; Kubovics-I Abstracts of the ...General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. 16; Pages 401. 1994.

    Controles de la mineralizacion en la Mina Cobriza Translated Title: Mineralization controls in the Cobriza Mine. Castro-Carlos-Cuba Geomimet.21; 191, Pages 24-26, 28-30, 32. 1994.
    Interrelationship of the terranes in western central Cuba. Piotrowska-Krystyna Tectonophysics.219; 4, Pages 273-282. 1993. .: , , , .

    Tectonics of oblique arc-continent collision in western Cuba; 2, Structural constraints. Caceres-D; Gordon-M-B; Mann-Paul; Flores-R Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union.74; 43, Suppl., Pages 546. 1993.

    El complejo volcano-sedimentario Cretacico de Cuba central (unificacion litoestratiggrafica y ambiente paleogeodunamico) Translated Title: The Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary complex of central Cuba, lithostratigraphic synthesis and paleogeodynamic context. Ianev-S-N; Tchounev-D-L; Tzankov-T-V In: Paleontologie et stratigraphie d'Amerique latine; table ronde europeenne Translated Title: Paleontology and stratigraphy of Latin America; European Gayet-M (editor) Documents des Laboratoires de Geologie, Lyon.125; Pages 223-240. 1993.

    Caracteristicas y perspectivas del cuarzo filoneano en la region oriental de de Cuba Translated Title: Characteristics and perspectives of quartz veins from the eastern region of Cuba. Rodriguez-Carlos-A-Leyva; Kulachkov-Leonid-V; Garcia-Roberto-Vargas Mineria y Geologia.3:

    A short note on the Cuban late Maastrichtian megaturbidite (an impact-derived deposit?). Iturralde-Vinent-Manuel-A Earth and Planetary Science Letters.109; 1-2, Pages 225-228. 1992.

    Tectono-magmatic development of central Cuba. Stanek-K-P; Cabrera-R In: 12th symposium on Latin-American geosciences. Miller-H (editor); Rosenfeld-U (editor); Weber-Diefenbach-K (editor) Zentralblatt fuer Geologie und Palaeontologie, Teil I: Allgemeine, Angewandte, Regionale und Historische Geologie.1991; 6, Pages 1571-1580. 1992.

    Age and tectonic significance of high-pressure metamorphic rocks of Cuba. Somin-M-L; Arakelyants-M-M; Kolesnikov-E-M-(Kolesnikov-Ye-M) International Geology Review.34; 2, Pages 105-118. 1992.

    Seismic stratigraphy and geologic history of Mid-Cretaceous through Cenozoic Cenozoic rocks, southern Straits of Florida. Denny-Walter-M III 1992.
Comment - Multifold and singlefold seismic data, industry wells, and DSDP/ODP sites are used to study the mid-Cretaceous-Cenozoic history of the southern Straits of Florida. Since the late Albian(?), the southern Straits of Florida has evolved evolved from a shallow-water platform to a deep water trough. Persistent Florida Current flow has existed since the early Paleocene and has produced a complex history of deposition and erosion. Initiation of Florida Current flow and evolution of the Straits of Florida is related to the Late Cretaceous-middle Eocene collision between the North America plate and the Cuban island arc. During the Early Cretaceous, a shallow-water carbonate platform-complex extended from the West Florida Shelf across what is now the Straits of Florida and northern Cuba to the Bahamas. Drowning and breakup of this broad platform began during the late Albian(?) to middle Cenomanian. During this drowning event, shallow-water buildups continued to develop at the Lower Cretaceous platform margin, around Cay Sal Bank, and along the southern margin of the South Florida basin. The Mid-Cretaceous Sequence Boundary (MCSB), a regional seismic horizon, is recognized in the southern Straits of Florida and marks the demise of shallow-water carbonate production at the Lower Cretaceous platform margin. During the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene, a deep-waterseaway, a proto-Straits of Florida, separated carbonate banks at Cay Sal and along the South Florida basin. As the Cuban island arc converged on the North American plate during the Late Cretaceous-middle Eocene, the southern Straits of Florida were downbuckling to the south in response to loading. Most of the deformation occurred along an east-west flexure. Regional dip towards the Cuban fold-and-thrust belt indicates that the southern Straits can be considered an extension of the north Cuban foreland previously identified in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico. Seismic facies indicate that bottom-currents were active along the northern limb of this foreland basin during the early Paleocene to middle Eocene, producing a variety of bedforms and erosion surfaces. These current-deposits are interpreted to be reworked, distal equivalents of flysch, olistostromes, and debris flows shed from the island arc complex. After Cuba was welded to the North American plate during the late Eocene, there was a major change in depositional regimes from current-produced deposition to drape deposition in the southern Straits. A major late-middle Eocene seismic unconformity separates current-deposited sediments from predominantly pelagic and hemipelagic sediments interbedded with distal turbidites. Since the Late Eocene, the axis of Florida Current flow appears to have been concentrated above the east-west trending flexure. During the middle Miocene, shallow-water shallow-water carbonate sediments were deposited along the Miami and Pourtales terraces. Since the middle Miocene, sediment drifts have continued to be deposited basinward of the Miami and Pourtales terraces.

    La constitucion geologica de macizo Isla de la Juventud y su metalogenia endogena vinculada al magmatismo acido Translated Title: Geologic structure of the Isla de la Juventud Massif and its endogene metallogeny with acidic magmatism. Pardo-Echarte-Manuel-E Transactions of the 12th Caribbean geological conference. Larue-David-K (editor); Draper-Grenville (editor) Transactions of the Caribbean Geological Conference = Memorias - Conferencia Geologica del Caribe. 12; Pages 68-81. 1990.: , , , .

        Lineaments of eastern Cuba; experiment in geological interpretation of aerospace images. Makarov-V-I; Trifonov-V-G; Volchkova-G-I; Formel-F; Brezhnyanskii-K- (Brezhnyanskiy-K); Oro J; Peres-K Soviet Journal of Remote Sensing.6; 4, Pages 611-627. 1990.  Harwood Academic Publishers. New York-Chur, International. 1990.

    Geology and tectonic evolution of the northern Caribbean margin. Lewis-John-F; Draper-Grenville; Bourdon-C; Bowin-Carl; Mattson-P-O; Maurrasse-F; Nagle-F; Pardo-G In: The Caribbean region. Dengo-Gabriel (editor); Case-J-E (editor) The geology of North America. 1990. H;Pages 77-140. 1990. Geol. Soc. Am.. Boulder, CO, United States. 1990.

    Miocene phosphorites of Cuba. Ilyin-A-V; Ratnikova-G-I In: Phosphate deposits of the world; Neogene to modern phosphorites. Burnett-William-C (editor); Riggs-S-R (editor) Burnett-W-C (editor); Riggs-S-R (editor) Pages 116-121.1990. Cambridge Univ. Press. New York, NY, United States. 1990.

    Late Cretaceous volcanic arc in the Bahia Honda Terrane, western Cuba. Pszczolkowski-Andrzej Geological Society of America, 1990 annual meeting. Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America. 22; 7, Pages 338. 1990.

    Correlacion de las metavulcanitas de la Sierra del Purial (Cuba Oriental) con las rocas de la asociacion ofiolitica Translated Title: Correlation of metavolcanic rocks of the Sierra del Purial (eastern Cuba) with its ophiolite association. Campos-Mario; Hernandez-Margarita Transactions of the 12th Caribbean geological conference. Larue-David-K (editor); Draper-Grenville (editor) Transactions of the Caribbean Geological Conference = Memorias - Conferencia Geologica del Caribe. 12; Pages 95-98. 1990.

    Evolucion de la estructura de Macizo de Escambray, sur de Cuba Central Translated Title: Structural evolution of the Escambray Massif, south of central Cuba. Millan-Trujillo-Guillermo In: Transactions of the 12th Caribbean geological conference. Larue-David-K (editor); Draper-Grenville (editor) Transactions of the Caribbean Geological Conference = Memorias - Conferencia Geologica del Caribe. 12; Pages 82-94. 1990.

    El uso del modelaje fisico-geologico en el pronostico de minerales solidos;, solidos;, un ejemplo, Isla de la Juventud, Cuba Translated Title: The use of physico-geologic modeling in the prediction of mineral resources, an example; Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. Pardo-Echarte-Manuel-E Ciencias de la Tierra y del Espacio.18; Pages 1-17. 1990. . Academia de Ciencias de Cuba. Havana, Cuba. 1990.:

    Geoquimica de la associacion ofiolitica de Cuba Translated Title: Geochemical association of ophiolites in Cuba. Fonseca-E; Castillo-F; Uhanov-A; Navarrete-M; Correa-G In: Transactions of the 12th Caribbean geological conference. Larue-David-K (editor); Draper-Grenville (editor) Transactions of the Caribbean Geological Conference = Memorias - Conferencia Geologica del Caribe. 12; Pages 51-58. 1990.

    Interpretacion de los datos geofisicos con fines de la cartografia geologo-estructural de la Republica de Cuba Translated Title: Interpretation of the geophysical data with the goal of the geologic-structural mapping of Cuba. Pardo-Manuel; Bello-Verania; Amador-Hilda; Taba-Sandor; Sousin-Oleg; Matamoros-y-Irio-de-Moya-Ileana Transactions of the 12th Caribbean geological conference. Larue-David-K (editor); Draper-Grenville (editor) Transactions of the Caribbean Geological Conference = Memorias - Conferencia Geologica del Caribe. Pages 43-50. 1990.

    Chromite in the hyperbasite belt of Cuba. Murashko-V-I; Lavandero-R-M International Geology Review.31; Pages 90-99. 1989.

    Recognition of oceanic and arc terranes in Hispaniola and Cuba. Lewis-John-F The Geological Society of America, South-central Section, 23rd annual meeting. Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America. 21; 1, Pages 33. 1989.

    1995 Actively evolving microplate formation by oblique collision and sideways motion along strike-slip faults; an example from the northeastern Caribbean Plate margin. Mann-Paul; Taylor-F-W; Edwards-R-Lawrence; Ku-Teh-Lung Tectonophysics, 246; 1-3, Pages 1-69. 1995.
Comment- The pattern of folding, faulting, and late Quaternary coral-reef uplift rates in western and central Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) suggest that the elongate Gonave microplate, a 190,000-km (super 2) area of the northeastern Caribbean plate, is in the process of shearing off the Caribbean plate and accreting to the North American plate. Late Cenozoic transpression between the southeastern Bahama Platform and the Caribbean plate in Hispaniola has inhibited the eastward motion of the northeastern corner of the plate. Transpression is manifested in western and central Hispaniola by the formation of regional scale folds that correspond to present-day, anticlinal topographic topographic mountain chains continuous with offshore anticlinal ridges. Areas of most rapid Quaternary uplift determined from onland coral reefs 125 ka and younger, coincide with the axial traces of these folds. Offshore data suggest recent folding and faulting of the seafloor. Onshore reef data do not conclusively require late Quaternary folding, but demonstrate that tectonic uplift rates of the axial areas of the anticlines decrease from the Northwest Peninsula of Haiti (0.37 mm/yr) to to the central part of the coast of western Haiti (0.19 mm/yr) to thesouth-central part of western Haiti (0 mm/yr). Formation of the 1200-km-long Enriquillo-Plantain Garden-Walton fault zone as a "bypass" strike-slip fault has isolated the southern edge of the Gonave microplate and is allowing continued, unimpeded eastward motion of a smaller Caribbean plate past the zone of late Neogene convergence and Quaternary uplift of coral reefs in Hispaniola. Offshore seismic reflection data from the Jamaica Passage, the marine strait separating Jamaica and Haiti, show that the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone forms a narrow but deep, active fault-bounded trough beneath the passage. The active fault is continuous with active faults mapped onshore in western Haiti and eastern Jamaica; the bathymetric deep is present because the Jamaica Passage fault segment represents a 50-km-wide, transtensional left-step of the fault trace between Haiti and Jamaica. Onshore satellite imagery and field observations suggest that the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault forms a continuous trace extending from central Hispaniola east of Lake Enriquillo, Dominican Republic, to the westernmost end of the southern peninsula of Haiti. The regional lineament corresponds to a recent fault scarp in Quaternary alluvium of the Clonard pull-apart basin in the central part of the southern peninsula of Haiti and suggests that at least this part of the lineament has undergone recent slip. Calmus (1983) has suggested a total offset of 30-50 km of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone in the southern peninsula of Haiti using the apparent offset of lithologic units. Seismic reflection data from Lake Enriquillo document recent deformation of Quaternary lake sediments where the lineament crosses the lake. Leveling of the crest of a late Holocene coral reef and associated algal tufa around Lake Enriquillo demonstrate late Holocene vertical movement and tilting in a 1500-m-wide zone parallel to the fault trend. Lateral offset is difficult to show in the Enriquillo Valley area because of rapid recent sedimentation into the valley. The pattern of inactive strike-slip faults and fold belts of Cenozoic age in Cuba and the Yucatan basin suggest that two elongate microplates were sheared off the proto-Caribbean plate and accreted to the North American plate by a similar process in Paleocene and Eocene times. Age of terminal deformation in western, central and eastern Cuba is consistent with southeastward younging and migration of arc collision. The similarity of the size and sequence of events in Cuba suggests that the process of oblique collision and sideways motion of the plate along a new strike-slip fault towards a free face may be an important process of microplate formation and interplate transfer in other areas.: Tectonophysics.

    Lidiak, E.G. and Larue, D.K., 1998 Tectonics and geochemistry of the northeastern Caribbean: Geol. Soc. America Special Paper 322,  1-215.