Professor William R. Church, Western University

                    Professor Emeritus of Geotectonics in the Department of Earth Sciences. Retired June 30th, 2002.  Born and bred in the the coal mining community of Thomastown (Coedely colliery) just south of Tonyrefail  at the head of the Ely Valley in South Wales. Iechyd da i gyd!

.                  Places of importance in my youth -
  the Vale of Glamorgan and the Bristol Channel from the Garth Mountain,
 the (c. 1830) Watkins' family home 'Warren House' in  Pentyrch, north of Cardiff;  Cwmlai elementary School (
a Child's Xmas in Wales ) ;  Tonyrefail Grammar School where the chemistry teacher Mr Gran Lloyd excited my interest in Chemistry, and the Physics teacher 'old' Gabe made sure I was thoroughly grounded in Physics and Calculus; and Ballyshannon in Donegal, Eire, where I learnt to combine my love of the outdoors with the study of 'rocks', and which eventually led me to Baie Verte in search of eclogites that would link the Fleur de Lys psammites of the North American Appalachians to the Lough Derg psammites of the Irish Caledonides on the other side of the Atlantic, studies that eventually led to the recognition that the Appalachians and Caledonides represented a once continuous plate tectonic system wherein the eclogites represented subducted continental material dragged to depth beneath a west-facing obducting oceanic arc represented by the ophiolites of the Baie Verte region and the Bay of Islands of Western Newfoundland.
                  TABLE OF CONTENTS:
                      ANGLESEY, WALES
Learn about....  - Logan, Smith...
     WHAT WAS SAID.....  
     e.g. :  Anglesey-Avalonian,   Eclogites, Egypt-Saudi Arabia-Sudan,
Huronian-Southern Province-Sudbury Morocco, Ophiolites
              ( Betts Cove - Cyprus).
            Memoir : the Plate-tectonic significance of Eclogites and Ophiolites
         in Newfoundland and Ireland

            Office: Room 1000, B&G Building;  
            Phone  519-432-8750;
             E-mail -  (remove both abcd strings);

     The history of Thomastown - a one-time coal mining community in the Ely Valley of South Wales.
     The oldest geological map in the world  - geological map of an old gold mine exploited in Pharaonic times during the reign of King Seti I; Nineteenth Dynasty, 1350-1205 B.C. The map is known as the Turin Papyrus and shows the stone quarries and gold mines in Wadi Hammamat near Naqada (Nubt = gold town).
     Jabal Zebara - -  my favourite wilderness area.
     Ciorneva         - in the French/Italian Alps (1974; also very quiet!).
     Montmatre - rue de Mont-Cenis  - Utrillo

Relics from the First World War - and the words from father to father
     Children's Xmas at the Western Front, 1918 - waifs and war, dolls and little mothers....
          Debussy - Noel des enfants qui n'ont plus de maisons
                                       Xmas  for  children  who are homeless
BBC - Dec 18 2016 UNICEF - Among the people waiting to leave
eastern Aleppo are sick and wounded children,
Some young children have been forced to leave without their parents,
 and hundreds of vulnerable children remain trapped.
"We are extremely concerned about their fate. If these children are not
evacuated urgently, they could die."
      "plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose"
      The view towards Llantrisant viewed from the west slope of the Glyn mountain The distant dot is the "Billy Wynt"  marking the high point of the southern scarp of the South Wales coal field (north-dipping Carboniferous Pennant Sandstone limb of the Hercynian South Wales syncline) . The "Billy Wynt" is the remains of a 13th Century windmill destroyed during a battle in the Middle Ages, but still shown as the site of a windmill on Bowen's 1729 map of South Wales. The nearby Llantrisant castle, also built in the 13th Century, was held for Edward I by the Norman de Clare family.   The adjacent common land at Llantrisant, consisting of some 298 acres, was granted along with charter status to the Freemen of  Llantrisant, supposedly in recognition of the participation of Llantrisant longbowmen in the Battle of Crecy in 1346 (not something I mention in the presence of my wife! -  at the battle of Agincourt the French threatened to remove the 2 string fingers of all Welsh archers who were captured.)

     The Glyncorrwg yewtree - according to Lewis'  Topographical Dictionary of Wales, 1833, it was 'thirty feet four inches in girth' even at this time.
     Galena-bearing Triassic sandstone - unconformable on Carboniferous Limestone, near Creigiau - my first home-made 'cat's whiskers' radio was operated with galena (a natural transistor) from these rocks.  ("Some (me) couldn't afford commercially available crystal detectors and made their own with a chunk of galena crystal and a cat's whisker. Galena is the name for lead sulfide which is the principal ore of lead. The cat's whisker was actually a very fine wire. The procedure was to made a good connection to the galena for one terminal and to probe around with the cat's whisker for a 'sweet spot' for the other terminal" - )
Welsh diamonds - concretionary  ironstones in the Welsh Coal Measures commonly contain geodes in which grow euhedral quartz grains and acicular sprays of millerite (NiS).
South Wales as a wine producer?  (My grandmother Margaret Jones was born here at Tynant, Groes-faen, and her parents Sam and Ann are buried there in the village.)
      Field location in the wild Newfoundland bush near Vaie Verte, and from where I proposed to my wife -  she says that I was probably thinking that marriage couldn't possibly be any worse!
Rock carving, Fleur de Lys, Newfoundland - image of an old (how old?) schooner carved in soapstone, Fleur de Lys, Burlington Peninsula, Newfoundland.
The flower of Fleur de Lys -  small aboriginal soapstone quarry at Fleur de Lys.
The heyday of Newfoundland cod fishing.
Detrital chromite  - the discovery of grains of detrital chromite in Ordovician-age sandstones was one of the primary observations leading to the interpretation of Appalachian ultramafic-mafic sequences as 'oceanic' crust.
The last of the summer wine! - From Tonyrefail to South Australia, 1950's to 2008

            Cycling adventures:
Cycling in France and Spain, plus  some sites on the Geology of the Catalan/Pyrenean region of Spain.
Are you young, fit, and enthusiastic?  Could you cycle1200 km in 89 hours - read Harriet Fells account of her participation in the Paris - Brest - Paris ride.

Tour de France 2004 - The cyclist with the with the yellow jersey is the infamous Lance Armstrong.
    Geology of  Europe, South and North America, India, Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Russia, and the evolution of Paleozoic and Pre-Cambrian ocean basins.
    Currently interested in: 1)  Geographic Information Systems from the point of view of "Earth Systems Science"; 2) all things geological, geochemical, and geophysical; 3) the introduction of GIS concepts into undergraduate field mapping courses, and the development of undergraduate/graduate geology excursion web sites, e.g.   In particular,  the geology of the Sudbury region, the Highland Border Series of Scotland, the geology of Cuba;  dynamic topography during the Archean;  the chemistry of sea water; a better level of competency in Spanish in order to take another student field trip to Cuba and/or Mexico.
     Related web links:
    Plate Tectonics
Geology of the Canadian Cordillera - southern
Geology of the Canadian Cordillera - northern
Geology of the Southern Province

                                                                                        FIELD EXCURSIONS
The Old geology 410Y 4th year field trip - The Great Field Trip (under construction)

SEG Geology of the Adirondacks, New York State, Oct. 2004 
The Meso-Protoerozoic Grenvillian geologic history of the Adirondacks region of New York State
Southern Appalachians

SEG Geology of the Southern Appalachians  

Mineral deposits in the context of the accretionary history of Virginia, Tenessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Maryland.


SEG Geology/Geography Field Trip to SE California, February 2004

Guide to Extensional Tectonics and Gold Mineralization in the SW USA

A Google Earth .kmz file for the trip
(clockwise and anticlockwise) is available as USA_SW.kmz and US_SWanti.kmz from the UWO FTP site:

        Mineral Deposits in Arizona, California, and Nevada - in particular deposits of gold, copper, and manganese - thought to be related to Miocene detachment faulting.    Waypoints, geologic maps and the drawn traces of roads and desert tracks are presented in the form of a set of kmz files. Click the kmz link to download it into Google Earth (I assume you have Google Earth on your computer!!). I have also created a set of kmz files concerning subjects as disparate as Meteor Crater, the Grand Canyon, the mining districts of Jerome and Bagdad, the volcanism at Ubehebe and at Sunset Crater in the vicinity of Flagstaff,  the detachment geology of the Phoenix-Tucson region, and the Franciscan geology of the West Coast, including Santa Catalina Island.


Las Vegas,  Lake Mead,  Hoover Dam,  Mojave,   Laughlin,  Newberry detachment,  Oatman,  Parker Dam,  Cattail,  Whipple,  Buckskin,  Swansea,  Clara Peak, Boise,  Lincoln Ranch,  Yuma,   Picacho,   Cargo Muchacho,   Chocolate Mountains,   Black Mountains,   Vitrifax,   American Girl,   Padre Madre,   Hedges, Mesquite,   Tumco,   Winterhaven,   Orocopia,   Algodones Dunes,   Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge,   Calipatria,   Obsidian Butte,   Rock Hill,   Painted Canyon,   Mecca Hills,   San Andreas,   Joshua Tree,   Whitetank,   Juniper Flats  -  Bowen Ranch hot springs,   Saline Valley,   Panamint Range,   Mesquite Springs,   Ubehebe,  Death Valley,  Natural Bridge,  Armagoza 'chaos',  Valley of Fire,  petroglyphs,  extension,  detachment,  dip domains,  accomodation zone,  breccia,  mylonite,  brittle/ductile,  breakaway,  core complex,  Landsat,  Aster,  obsidian,  gold,  iron oxides,  chlorite,  kyanite,  Colorado Plateau,  Basin and Range.

Vegas to Laughlin
Whipple Mountains
Harcuvar Mountains
Dome Rock Mountains

Picacho - Hess mines - Gabbro/dike complex
Chocolate Mountains - Vitrifax, American Girl, Mesquite mines
Painted Valley
Death Valley
Las Vegas and surrounding areas
Panamint Range
Ubehebe volcanic crater

Jerome - Sedona
Meteorite Crater and Sunset Volcanic Crater
Grand Canyon
Phoenix - Tucson region



Ophiolites, arcs, and batholiths a tribute to Cliff Hopson - Clifford Andrae Hopson, James Earl Wright, John W. Shervais - Google Books.htm

Santa Catalina

Geological sources for Santa Catalina island are Catalina_Geology.pdf and Field_Trip_ Guidebook_2011.pdf . They can be downloaded from

San Luis Obispo - Cuesta Ridge ophiolite

Sources: Geology of the Cuesta Ridge Ophiolite Remnant near San Luis Obispo, California: Evidence for the Tectonic Setting and Origin of the Coast Range Ophiolite by Cameron A. Snow, Master of Science, Utah State University, 2002.

Thesis can be downloaded from as Cuesta_Ridge_Ophiolite.htm

Multi-stage origin of the Coast Range ophiolite, California: implications for the life cycle of supra-subduction zone ophiolites

by JW Shervais et al - International Geology 2004.   Paper can be downloaded as  shervais_igr_2004.pdf from

Excursion to SE California, Nevada, and Arizona, February 2008
Meriem, Norm, Ruikin, Jeremy, Sonya, Brad, Christine, Alaina
(Click to enlarge)
         Oatman Mine
 M&S                   Camping                   M&R              Amargosa Chaos    Spring Flowers    Briggs Gold Mine
Powerpoint version
February 2011


SEG Field Trip - SW-USA, 2015
Led by
Professor Norm Duke

                   Las Vegas - Oatman/Kingman - Bagdad - Jerome - Meteorite Crater - Grand Canyon   
Trip outline (click to see)

The field trip as recorded by drone and Marcus Adam. Thanks Marcus! - Can also be downloaded from :
(Click to go to the 'instruct' site)
Northern Michigan - Animikie
SEG Fall Field trip to the Marquette region of Northern Michigan, October 2008
The Lower Proterozoic Animikie Iron formations of northern Michigan,and the Keweenawan Cu mining district of the Keweenaw Peninsula
L to R: Norm, Nathalie, Megan, Danny, Elaina, Jim, Brad
  A Google Earth .kml file for the trip is available as USA_Animikie.kmz from the UWO FTP site:
The .kml file includes a link to the most recent geological map of the Marquette Mineral District
   Southern Province - Sudbury

SEG Field Trip - Sudbury off-set dikes, 2014

                 Data set at

                Drone video taken at the Broken Hammer Mine -

                 NOTE: With the advent of GOOGLE EARTH a set of .kmz files with placemarks for locations relevant to some of the above excursions has been created. These .kmz files (e.g. USA SW.kmz for the SW USA) can be downloaded from "

Whitefish Falls Field School- Early Days

Class of 1966 courtesy of Bob Mummery, thanks Bob!
Would you recognise Bob Mummery in 2012?
Coniston-Sudbury Field School
Sudbury 350y, 2006
Sudbury 350y, 2004                                                                                                Sudbury 350y, 2005
Sudbury 350y, 2003
                                                                                 Sudbury 350Y, 2002

Wet feet Mike???
Rob, that channel ahead of you is 6 feet deep!!
Maybe we should build a bridge this time?

410Y - Quebec and Northern Ontario


       1975 410y 3RD-YEAR FIELD TRIP, QUEBEC (lifted from the CLASS of '76 site (now defunct); many thanks to the contributors.)
          THE BUS GETS STUCK   (Disraeli,Eastern Townships of Quebec - not Timmins!)
          COMPETITOR # 1
          COMPETITOR # 2

     1977 -  410y 3RD-YEAR FIELD TRIP, QUEBEC, Geology in the snow; More geology in the snow; Geology discussion group; Larry Heaman and Marion Pierce;

Neil MacCraeGoofing off after a hard day's work in the snow;

       1978 -  410y 3RD-YEAR FIELD TRIP, QUEBEC,  -  Tim Latour, Jose Muhna

       1983 - 410Y 1983, on top of Mount Orford, Quebec.

       1991 - 410y 3RD-YEAR FIELD TRIP, QUEBEC Mike Collison, Allan Pratt, Peter Stewart, Phil Vickers, Terry Hay and Bob Dufton (a great year!).




2007 -  THE CLASS OF '57 -  50th Anniversary
Sat. September 29th 2007
Click -

2001 -  THE CLASS OF '76 - 25th Anniversary

Sat. September 29th 2001

                                To see what they look like twenty-five years later, click here!!!
                                To view the following photographs, double-click the image; use the 'Back' button to return to this page



                                                     PEOPLE WHOSE COMPANY I HAVE ENJOYED

                    1954 Our first foreign field trip - the Wye Valley, England; Chepstow - (Brian 'Lanky' Lewis, Deputy Minister of Education, NWT Government;
                Prof. Bill Church; 
John Hunt, chief investment counsellor for the Welsh Teachers Union;  Ken Francis, former principal bass with the
                Sadlers Wells Opera Company)
  Tintern AbbeySymmonds Yat Rock;

            1954 The fruit of six years of learning French at Tonyrefail Grammar School with Madame Henry - the Brioverian of Brittany, France Le Faou;

            1955 Trip down the Rhine Graben to the Black Forest  and Koblenz - camping at the Belgian/Dutch border,

                    the Eiffel Tower (Brian Townley, left; Billy Bridges right)

            1956 Scandinavia, oil shales, the Cambro-Orodovician transition; pyrite, uranium and Wolfrum mines;

                    summer employment on the the M/S 'Fjelheim' coastal carrier (Trondheim to Nord Cap), arrival in Happaranda- Tornio (+antlers)

            1957 Ben Nevis, Scotland,   Norwegian anorthosites (Prof. Michot, University of Liege, Belgium)

            1959 Grad students, Cardiff  - Tony Bazley (later to become Director Geological Survey of Northern Ireland),
                and Terry Smith ( Senior Professor of Geology
at Windsor University).

               1959 Cardiff Geology Grad students (left to right) Tony Bazley, Joe Pifaretti, Bill French, Bill Church
                posted in memory of Joe Pifaretti (South Wales Coal Board, Cardiff),
and Bill French (Queen Mary College, London).

Ireland   -  Ballyshannon, Loch Derg psammites;   Donegal Bay;     Unconformity, Carboniferous overlying Lough Derg psammites,
                Beleek road near

            1963 On campus  - Frank Anglin, UWO geophysics graduate and member of the Seismology Division of the Geological Survey of Canada.

            1963 Sept 21 Rare group photograph showing the Department Faculty at that time of the 'Great Expansion', including Jackie Ainge,
                Harold and Ruby Reavely,
Gordon Suffel, Alex and Anita Dreimanis, Gordon and Jean Winder; and the most recent additions Gant Young,
                Alan and Shirley Edgar, and
myself and Monique, the couple whose marriage was being celebrated. Best men were Frank Anglin of the Geophysics
and Sean Ward of the English Department.

            1964-5? Annual shoot the Profs day  - Garth Platt, Chris Gunn, Fergus Graham, ?, ?

            1964-5? A friendly game of football  - Bill Church (with 3 legs!), Hugh Rance, George Pinder, Fergus Graham, Chris Gunn, Jesse Kraft.

            1966 California , Franciscan eclogites - Prof. Grant Young; Bill Church

            1967 Gander Conference  - George Cockburn (2nd from the right kneeling; Bob Stevens (above/left of George Cockburn); Marshall Kay (3rd from right);
             Bill Church (2nd form, left first row standing)); also Bill Poole, Brad Hall, Rodney Gayer, Don Bowes, Jim Skehan, Jack Bird, John Rogers.

            1968 Mexico  - Prof. Grant Young ( Lower Cretaceous carbonates, south of Cuernavaca);  Eocene continental conglomerates of the Morelos basin)

            1969  Newfoundland  -  Bob Stevens,  flat lying Ordovician carbonates, west coast of the Great Northern Peninusula; coast of Labrador lie
               in the far distance
across the Straits of Belle Isle; year of the discovery of the significance of the Betts Cove sheeted diabase to the
               interpretation of the western Newfoundland
ophiolites as 'oceanic' crust.

            1969   Graduate students c. 1969  (courtesy of Kam Chaing via Charlie Blackburn);  Names  Grandfather Charlie Blackburn

            1971 Newfoundland  - Luca Riccio standing below 'Sheeted diabase' at Mine Brook, Blow Me Down, Bay of Islands Newfoundland.

            1971 Newfoundland  - Luca Riccio and Darrel Long looking at rippled Kings Point sandstones, Newfoundland.

            1972 Newfoundland  - Professor Giovanni Piccardo (University of Genoa), anorthosite/dunite layers in ultramafic cumulates of the Bay of Islands ophiolite.

                  IGCP 1972 -  International Geological Congress field excursion to the Huronian, 1972, led by Bill Church and Grant Young
                (squatting, long hair);
Professor Gilbert Choubert in foreground;  1 billion year old Keweenawan ropy lava, Mamainse Point

            1974 Morocco  - Desert friendsTree climbing

            1975 HE WAS KNOWN AS CASTRO!                       APRIL 1ST   - The good old days!! (Notice the Commodore PET, middle left!)

            1979-1989  Egypt  -    HitchhikersProfessor Maher Takla (right) and Dr Fawzi Basta (left);    ancient rock grinding implement, Atud gold mine
             an abandoned sarcophagus; heiroglyphics and Alexandrian Greek script found on the ancient road (now paved) linking Quseir on the Red Sea to the Nile Valley (near Qena)

            1982   Saudi Arabia  - The sad end of the Ottoman Hejaz express (Mada'in Saleh), courtesy of Lawrence of Arabia and the Wahabi bedouin.
taken before the recent renovation of the station - see: )

                    The Nabitean civilization in Saudi Arabia  - the first Middle East conflict over oil; see: ,
the politics of oil in the ancient Middle East sealed the fate of Antony and Cleopatra."


                                WHAT WAS SAID...........  

             April 8th 2015 -  For most of my professional life as a geologist I have kept an Asksam text data base (GEOLOGY.ASK) recording data related to my and my students' research and my own particular interests, e.g. the Anthropogene, GIS, GPS, QGIS, Gold, Fracking, etc, as well as topics in Global Tectonics classified by Structural Province, e.g.  Churchill Province, Appalachians, Cordillera, ..... ; Geographic Location, e.g. Japan, Ghana, ..... ; Age, e.g. Pan-African, Late Proterozoic ..... ; and other geologic topics of special interest to me, e.g. Obduction, Foreland Basins, Iron Formations, the Sudbury Basin and its ores .....    

                    The Asksam file GEOLOGY.ASK along with the Asksam software "asviewer" (ASViewer.exe) that allows you access to GEOLOGY.ASK can be downloaded from:

or go to the online site



The serendipitous relationship between eclogite and ophiolite in Newfoundland: the Iapetan connection with Ireland

              Mea Culpa - when I started to work on the problem of Appalachian - Caledonian contiguity I was unaware of  E.B. BAILEY'S  Presidential Address to the British Association for the Advancement of Science in  Glasgow, 1929,  or  of Du Toits seminal paper 'The Origin of the Atlantic-Arctic-Ocean' published  unauspiciously in the German journal Geologische Rundschau at the beginning of the Second World War in 1939.  In particular I regret missing Du Toit's Figure 2 showing the correlation of the tectonic zones (Taconian - Caledonian - Acadian - Appalachian-Hercynian) defined at that time within the Appalachian and Caledonian systems.   Also note Dut Toit's comment : "Striking, as first pointed out by BAILEY (3), are the divergent Palaeozoic fold-bundles on both sides of the ocean, even when one concedes a generous amount of space between the reassembled blocks (Fig. 1).  BAILEY, E. B.: Pres. Add. Sect. C, Brit. Assoc. A. S. Glasgow, 1929, 57." But what did Bailey say in his Presidential Address - is there an actual record of his comments?

  Summary. The Altantic-Arctic Basin is antipodal to the Pacific.   Powerful evidence is cited to indicate its development through Continental Drift, as suggested by PICKERING in 1907. Initiated from the Mesozoic Tethys and progressively enlarged during the Tertiary, its outlines were essentially determined by tensional-rifting oriented mainly N.E and N.W within a zone extending more than half round the circumference of the Earth, from the Antarctic to Alaska. During the Alpine diastrophism fold linkages,that functioned as land bridges, were pushed up across the Ocean between the West Indies and Eurafrica and subsequently destroyed by the continued westerly drift of the Americas. Crustal stretching was accompanied by widespread volcanicity.  The Mid-Atlantic Rise is recent and has an Isostatic basis. The Atlantic-Arctic stretch-basin is largely bordered by Fault-Line Coasts and by downwarped shores that show the marginal, entrenched, terrestially-evolved drainages known as "Submarine Canyons".

 1.du TOlT, A. L.: Our Wandering Continents. Edinburgh, 1937.
2. LEINZ, V.: Petrographische und geologische Beobachtungen an den Sedimenten  der permo-karbonischen Vereisungen Sudbrasiliens. -- N. Jahrb. f.  Min, etc. B-Bd. 79. Abt. B. 1938, 26.
3. BAILEY, E. B.: Pres. Add Sect. C, Brit. Assoc. A. S. Glasgow, 1929, 57.
4. KEIDEL, H.: An. Minist. Agric. Argent. XI, num. 3, 1916.
5. MAACK, R.: Zeitsehr. Ges. Erdk., Berlin J.934, 194.
6. DU TOIT, A. L.: Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. 381, 1927.
7. PICKERING, W. H. Jour. Geol. 15, 1907, 23.
8. SONDER, R. A.: Die Lineamenttektonilk und ihre Probleme. -- Eclog. Geol. Helv. 31, nr. 1, 1938.
9. VAN BEMMELEN, R. W.: XVI. Inter. Geol. Congr. 11, 1936, 965.


                               Historiography of research on : Low Ti basalts – Boninites – Cyprus – Betts Cove

                               The file boninites.doc can be downloaded from - (rt. click -> Save link as....)


                              Geology of Anglesey since 1846  -  citations arranged chronologically; and with emphasis on the 'obduction model'.

                                   Clicking the following link -  -
                                          will download the Anglesey kmz file into Google Earth - if you have the latter installed on your computer.
                                         The kmz file contains geologic maps, cross-sections, and waypoints with comments,  as well as links to outcrop photographs.

                                 Evolution versus creationism; Islam and Evolution - Preston Cloud


                          Appalachian - Caledonian Geology

             The Caledonian - Appalachian system of Scotland/Ireland, Newfoundland Burlington Peninsula, Western Newfoundland,

              Southern Quebec, and  Eastern New England - Maritimes - Avalonia -  Anglesey  

                                  The eclogitic rocks of Western Ireland and Newfoundland  

            Links between the Newfoundland Appalachians and the Irish and Scottish Caledonides: eclogites, ophiolites, olistoliths

                 Chromitite: Bay of Islands ophiolite, Black Lake (Quebec) ophiolites - compared with the Archean 'Ring of Fire' chromitites in Northern Ontario

                                   Early Proterozoic
              The Early Proterozoic (Huronian) of the Southern Structural Province of Ontario


                               Late Proterozoic : North Africa - Nubian Shield

           The Late Proterozoic Nubian Shield of Egypt

             The Late Proterozoic Nubian Shield of Saudi Arabia - contains an important link to the most recent geological map of Saudi Arabia

          The Late Proterozoic continental margin of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas      

                                    Late Proterozoic : Anglesey, Wales  
The Late Proterozoic geology of Anglesey - since 1846  (citations arranged chronologically; and with emphasis on the  obduction model)

                  Clicking the following link -  -
                        will download the kmz file into Google Earth - if you have the latter installed on your computer. The kmz file contains geologic maps,
                       cross-sections, and waypoints with comments,  as well as links to outcrop photographs.



        Go to for a complete listing of available kml/kmz files

============================================================================================= - all data


                                                   - the Grenville Front in the Sudbury region of Ontario


       - Anglesey, Wales

               the Avalon_Nashoba terranes of southeast New England,
                              including links to field stops of the 2007 NEGSA field trip: Hon, R. , Hepburn, J.C. & Lair, Jo. 2007. Siluro-Devonian igneous rocks of
                              the easternmost three terranes in southeastern New England: examples from NE Massachusetts and SE New Hampshire. Guidbook
                              to field trips inNew Hampshire, adjacent Maine and  Massachusetts, 42nd Ann Meet. NEGSA, March 11 2007, p. 23-43 (20).                

============================================================================================= - Geology of Cuba

Field Trip held in 1998 to compare the obduction history of Cuba to that of the Appalachian-Caledonian sysem of Newfoundland - Scotland/Ireland
Recent added map figures from Itturalde-Vinent, M.A. et al. 2016. The geology of Cuba: a brief overview and synthesis. GSA Today v. 26, no. 10, p. 4-10.




Earth Science 200A
PLATE TECTONICS - this course is now under revision and these notes no longer apply.
Movie: Subduction model of Gurnis, 1.7 Mb; needs Quicktime)
Movie: Raft Tectonics of the Kwanza Basin, Angola: Resoration of a Seismic Section, by G. Guglielmo ( 3.7 Mb)


Earth Science 300B - 
this course is now being being integrated with the mineral Deposits course of Dr. Norman Duke!!!


Earth Science 350Y

Field camp, CLASS OF 99

350Y Field Camp, CLASS OF 00

350Y Field Camp, CLASS OF 01

350Y Field Camp, CLASS OF 02

350y Field Camp CLASS OF 03


Earth Science 505A/B
GSMCAD, USGS mapping freeware


Earth Science Geochemistry (currently not offered)
Notes: Mixing Calculations.
Notes: thermodynamics I
Notes: thermodynamics II


1st year course: THE SEA
Notes - Plate Tectonics: from Mantle to Crust
Notes - Plate Tectonics: from Crust to Ocean
Reading Material
Some 'EARTH SYSTEM' numbers!
Some stuff off the internet.


              LEARN ALL ABOUT:

             Sir William Logan

                  The information at this site was extracted from the work carried out over a lifetime by Dr. C. Gordon Winder
photo of Gordon as a young veteran of World War II - on the life and work of Sir William Logan.
                  The site is dedicated to the memory of Gordon following his death on March 2, 2016.
                  Gordon and his wife Jean appear on this 
 group photograph  of departmental faculty taken in 1963.
                  Gordon is located at centre back row, his wife Jean behind and to the left of the bride. Happier days!

       Sir William Logan and the Taconic Problem by Bob Stevens, 1964.
  A discussion published in

                "Proud Heritage - People and Progress in Early Canadian  Geoscience", GAC Reprint Series Number 8

                  of Sir William Logan's work on the 'Great Dislocation' in explaining the incoherent paleontological
                  data in the western continent - ocean collision zone of the Appalachian system. 
(Click the following link - Logan and Geology).
Also dedicated to the memory of Bob who left us on Aug 21, 2014. His death was a matter of much personal
       regret, a feeling held I am certain by many other people who knew and worked with Bob during his life time.

              William Smith - the father of modern geology
                  The  Map that changed the World: William Smith and the Birth of Modern Geology by Simon Winchester,
       Harper Collins,   336pp, $37.95. 
Reviewed in the Globe and Mail,  Sat. Aug 11th 2001, by John Wilson; 


    Some useful call numbers:
AAPG TN860.A3;                        Am. Geo. Un Geodyn. Ser QD901.A2;    AJS Q1A5;
Am. Min QE351.A7;                    Ann. Rev. E. Plan QE1.A674;   Aust. JES QE1.A1E6;  
BGSA QE1.G2;                           BGS Abst. QE1.G19;                BGS France QE1.S6312;
Bull. Volc. QE521.5.B8;              CJES QE1.C35;                        Can. Min. QE351.C35;
Chem. Geol. QE515.C34;           CIMBull. TN1.C18;                   CRAS Paris Q46.A23;
Cont. Min. Pet. QE351.B45;        EPSL QE1.E12;                        E. Sci. Rev. QE1.E14;
Econ. Geol. QE1.E15;                 EOS P1.A1E6;                         EOS Trans QE 500.A6;
Episodes QE1.I.762 O;                                                              GAC Abst QE1.G222 O;
GAC Field Guid QE188.G254 O;                                                Geochim. Cosmo. Acta. QE351.G34;
Geol.J. QE1.G14;                        Geol. J. Japan QE1.G35;        Geol. Mag. QE1.G15;
Geol. Soc. Am. Memoirs QE1.G21                                            Geology of North America QE71.G48
Geol. Soc. Am  Spec Papers QE1.G222 O;                               Geol. Mijn. QE1.G76;
Geol. Rund QE1.G8;                   Geology QE1.G528;                Geotectonics QE500.G46;
Geotimes QE1.G86;                    Indian JES QE1.I535;              Int. Geol. Rev. QE1.I7;
JGS QE1.G4;                              JGS Aust. QE1.G226;              JGS India QE1.G34;
J. Geol. QE1.J8;                         J. Geoph. Res. QC811.J8;       J. Pet. QE420.J7;
J. Str. Geol. QE601.J38;             Lithos QE39.M37;                    Min. Mag. QE351.T8;
Nature Q1.N2;                            Nor. Geol. Tids. QE1.N67;        Ph. Tr. RS London Q41.L79;
Phys. E. Plan Int. QE509.P58;     Prec. Res. QE655.P74;
Pr. Lun Plan Sc Conf. QB592.L85 (Med);                                   Pr. Roy. Soc. Lond. Q41.G7;
Sch. Min Pet. Mit. QE351.S34;   Science Q1.S35;                      Sci. Terre QE1.S218;
Scot. JG QE1.S26;                     Tectonics QE500.T428;             Tectonophysics QE500.T43;
Tr. GS S.Africa QE1.G48;           Tr. RS Edin. Q41.E2;                Min.Pet. QE351.T8;
Volc. J. QD901.Z5;


                                               SEG LECTURES

                  The Student Chapter, University of Western Ontario, Society of Economic
Geologists (SEG) held a highly successful one-day Short Course entitled "Geology and
Metallogeny of the Grenville Province" on
March 4, 2005.

Details of the Short Course, including Speakers, Schedule  of Talks,
Registration and Accommodation can be found at the following website:

 If you need further information contact Dr. Norm Duke, ,

 Duncan Bain, , or Jeff Cormier,








        GLOBAL WARMING, KYOTO, etc - who to believe? (Last revised: 2005)
The position of the Geological Association of Canada (GAC) versus that of the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists (CSPG).
GAC - (i) that climate changes, naturally;
CSPG - Global climate change is a natural and continual process on Earth.  Climate changes similar to and much more severe than those happening today have occurred repeatedly throughout historic and geologic time, as the result of many natural factors.
CSPG - 1. Global climate change has been a constant throughout the history of the Earth, driven by a variety of global and astronomical natural factors.  The variability of and interactions among these factors are the subjects of active research, but are still very poorly understood by climate scientists.  Observations of past climatic variations show much better correlation with astronomical variables such as solar activity and orbital changes than they do with atmospheric CO2 levels.
GAC - (ii) that greenhouse gas emissions have made a positive contribution to warming of the size of current increases, but the buffering mechanisms need to be better understood before we can tell just how strong an effect the emissions have;
CSPG - Climate science is only beginning to understand these factors and their interactions.  There is no significant evidence, and certainly no "scientific consensus", that greenhouse gases produced by humans are driving any unusual climate changes.
CSPG - 2. Since the beginning of the 20th century, atmospheric CO2 has risen with accelerated production of CO2 by human activities.  However, using the best attempts to remove biases from temperature data, there is not a good correlation between atmospheric CO2 and global temperatures.
GAC - (iii) that, while we get a better grip on such climate modelling, a cautionary approach should be taken, including effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions;
CSPG - Mankind's greatest efforts to reduce production of carbon dioxide, a natural component of the atmosphere essential to all life, will not significantly affect future climate change.  The climate will change naturally, and mankind must adapt, as all life has done throughout the Earth's history. We should not be distracted from the worthwhile goals of using all resources wisely, and of reducing our production of polluting chemicals that are truly harmful to life on Earth. (see Quirks and Quarks below)
CSPG - 3. Global circulation models attempt to represent climatic influences with numerical equations, and are used to predict future climate variations.  However, they are hampered by our poor understanding of the relationships and feedback loops among many of the key variables.  GCM predictions of warming trends through the 21st century have decreased systematically as the models have become more sophisticated.
CSPG - 4. These observations suggest that global climate change is a natural and fundamental part of earth history, and that the effects of human activities on global climate are no more than a poorly-understood fourth-order factor.
GAC - (iv) that geoscience has lots to offer in predicting the impact of global warming;
CSPG - ?
GAC - (v) that smart geoscience has many applications in our adaptation to current warming and its consequences.
CSPG - ?

           Recent 2005 EPICA core data discussion

           Everybody wins, everybody loses!!  Antarctic core data shows that periods of CO2 increase (to c. 290 ppm/v) and consequent global warming are kick-started with the termination of the orbital cooling cycle when CO2 values have decreased to values of c. 190 ppm/v.  The current CO2 values of 380 ppm/v are therefore well above the normal CO2 concentration at the present stage of the orbital cycle.

          During the cooling part of the cycle CO2 is progressivly dissolved in ocean water; the relatively rapid release of CO2 once the asymmetric warming part of the cycle commences is perhaps related to loss of solubility of the CO2 and the physical displacement of CO2 rich deep ocean waters towards the surface.

Acknowledgment: ;


*******************************************************************************  - Index -> Arctic and Antarctic Climate: -> 650,000 years of greenhouse gas concentrations
Note: 119. Ferdinand Engelbeen  Says:

16 December 2005 at 6:17 PM
"Re #116:
as the graphs of Jouzel are too coarse, I have put the Vostok trends of the Eocene period on the net here, and added a (rough) trend for the temperature based on the delta-D correction. The corrected temperature trend indeed stays a longer time at higher levels, but goes faster down and still is near its minimum, before CO2 starts to decrease. While the overall correlation temperature - CO2 is higher with this correction, the correlation temperature - CH4 gets much worse…"


Climatic Research Unit - University of East Anglia


Still Waiting for Greenhouse - John L. Daly's lukewarm website

CSPG_Climate_Change_Backgrounder by D.L. Barss, A. Patterson, and A.F. Jacobs (PDF File).
deFreitus, C. 2002, Are Observed Changes in the Concentration of Carbon Dioxide in the
Atmosphere Really Dangerous? Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 50, 2, p. 297-327 (PDF File). 


Geological Society of London Meeting, March 25-27 2003 - Coping with Climate Change

Quirks and Quarks - CBC Radio
Scientific American

US Environmental Protection Agency
US Historical Climatology Network Data Set
World Temperature Data Repository



Welcome to climate change in Canada -

"A natural system known as the "greenhouse effect" regulates the temperature on earth. Human activities have the potential to disrupt the balance of this system. As human societies adopt increasingly sophisticated and mechanized lifestyles, the amounts of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere have been increased. By increasing the amount of   these gases, humankind has enhanced the warming capability of the natural greenhouse effect. It is the human-induced enhanced greenhouse effect that causes environmental  concern. It has the potential to warm the planet at a rate that has never been experienced  in human history."
"  The increase in temperature was not constant, but rather consisted of warming and cooling cycles at intervals of several decades." 


Broecker, W.S.  2001.  Glaciers That Speak in Tongues and other tales of global warming.  Natural History 110 (8): 60-69.

     A Conservative commentary from the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change:

   The Little Ice Age, a period (Broecker)  refers to as "a cold episode that ran from about 1300 to 1860."
      .....roughly half the overall warming since 1860 occurred before carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human activities had reached significant levels.
    ......The most recent of such (warm) episodes, of course, would be the Medieval Warm Period (another climatic phenomenon the climate alarmists are wroth to recognize) and before that the Roman Warm Period.
  ..... the concluding words of Broecker, "we can state with some confidence that natural Holocene temperature fluctuations have been on the same scale as the human-caused effects estimated to result from greenhouse gases."  Hence, as he continues, "we cannot assume that in the absence of human intervention, earth's temperatures would have remained stable." Yes, there is absolutely no way for proponents of CO2 emission regulations to prove  their case, especially when all indications suggest that nothing climatically out of the ordinary is even on the verge of happening, or, as climate alarmists are irrationally wont to claim, has already happened.  But "does this mean we can all sit back, do nothing, and wait for the results to roll in?"  Broecker answers his rhetorical question with a Certainly not.  We, however, say Yes, especially with respect to committing the nations  of the earth to mandatory CO2 emissions reductions.
    With respect to this difference of opinions, it is important to note that they are just that, opinions.  Broecker bases his on a belief in the adequacy of current climate models.  We base ours on a belief in their inadequacy, as well as the weight of evidence discussed above, plus the likelihood we will need all the atmospheric CO2 we can muster in the years ahead to prevent the catastrophic shortages of food and water that will otherwise likely materialize (see our Editorials of 1 October 1999, 1 February 2000, 15 November 2000, 21 February 2001, 2 May 2001, 13 June 2001).
    Although we thus disagree with Broecker on what he thinks we should be doing about the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content, we have not the slightest doubt about the sincerity of his expressed belief.  And we have nothing but the greatest admiration for his scientific insight and integrity.  If everyone on both sides of the issue were as forthcoming as he is with respect to these matters, it would be a far, far better world.

  Other "Global Warming"  data sources


   July 2003

   Shaviv, N.J. and Weizer, J., 2003. GSA Today, Celestial driver of Pherozoic climate?, 13, 7. p. 4-10.
   Phanerozoic climatic indicators and reconstructed pCO2 levels, Figure 1.

   Abstract: "...analyze the reconstructed seawater paleotemperature record for the Phanerozoic ... , and compare it with the variable cosmic ray flux (CRF) reaching Earth and with the reconstructed partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). least 66% of the variance in the paleotemperature trend could be attributed to CRF variations likely due to solar system passages through the spiral arms of the galaxy. ...We propose a tentative upper limit to the long-term "equilibrium" warming effect of CO2, one which is potentialy lower than that based on general circulation models."

     "the global climate possesses a stabilizing negative feedback. A likely condidate for such a feedback is cloud cover (Lindzen, 1997; Ou, 2001). If so, it would imply that the water cycle is the thermostat of climate dynamics, acting both as a positive (water vapor) and negative (clouds) feedback, with the carbon cycle "piggybacking" on, and being modified by the water cycle (Neumani et al, 2002; Lovett, 3002; Lee and Veizer, 2003)."



        The other concern - Pollution and Health:

         November 23, 2002 on Quirks & Quarks: When Smoke Ran Like Water:

         Over the past few decades, you could say that we've made enormous gains in linking environmental pollution to human health problems. We've taken the lead out of gasoline and paint;  we've restricted or banned smoking in airplanes  and most public buildings; we've put catalytic converters on cars; we've taken asbestos out of our  walls. But according to Dr. Devra Davis,  governments and industry have consistently ignored or even discredited the link between  pollution and health. In her new book, she documents a long history of "death by  contaminants", and calls for a new war against environmental deception.



A few 'EARTH SYSTEM' numbers!

W.R. Church's Bookmarks


Terrestrial Meteorite Craters.

Plumes and Mantle Convection.

Open Democracy


Le Monde.

New York Times

The Weather around the Great Lakes


The Guardian

ITS Help Desk.


Geology of the Southern Province

Last revised: 2016/03/20