Sinclair Lab Publications
Contact Us
Biology Home

Google Scholar Profile

For reprints, please visit the journals' websites or contact Dr. Sinclair. *contributed equally.


Meehan, M.L., Turnbull, K.F., Sinclair, B.J. & Lindo, Z. in press. Predators minimize energy costs, rather than maximize energy gains under warming: Evidence from a microcosm feeding experiment. Functional Ecology

Lebenzon, J.E., Denezis, P.W., Mohammad, L., Mathers, K.E., Turnbull, K.F., Staples, J.F. & Sinclair, B.J. in press. Reversible mitophagy drives metabolic suppression in diapausing beetles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A.

Sinclair, B.J., Sørensen, J.G. and Terblanche, J.S. in press. Harnessing thermal plasticity to enhance the performance of mass-reared insects: Opportunities and Challenges. Bulletin of Entomological Research.

Duell, M.E., Gray, M.T., Roe, A.D., MacQuarrie, C.J.K. & Sinclair, B.J. 2022. Plasticity drives extreme cold tolerance of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) during a polar vortex. Current Research in Insect Science 2: 10031.


Torson, A.S., Hicks, A.M.A., Baragar, C.E., Smith, D.R. & Sinclair, B.J. 2021. The mitochondrial genome of two Gryllus crickets (Grylloidea: Gryllidae) via RNA-seq. Mitochondrial DNA B 7: 106-107.

Lebenzon, J.E., Torson, A.S. and Sinclair, B.J. 2021. Diapause differentially modulates the transcriptomes of fat body and flight muscle in the flight muscle in the Colorado potato beetle. Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry D 40: 100906.

Studd, E.K., A.E. Bates, A.J. Bramburger, T. Fernandes, B. Hayden, H.A.L. Henry, M.M. Humphries, R. Martin, B.C. McMeans, E.R.D. Moise, A.M. O’Sullivan, S. Sharma, B.J. Sinclair, A.O. Sutton, P.H. Templer and S.J. Cooke.  2021.  Nine maxims for the ecology of cold-climate winters.  BioScience 71: 820-830.

Lebenzon, J.E., Toxopeus, J., Anthony, S.E. & Sinclair, B.J. 2021. De novo assembly and characterisation of the transcriptome of the Beringian pseudoscorpion. Canadian Entomologist 153: 301-313.

Anthony, S.E., Buddle, C.M., Høye, T.T., Hein, N. & Sinclair, B.J. 2021. Thermal acclimation has limited effect on the thermal tolerances of summer-collected Arctic and sub-Arctic wolf spiders. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 257: 110974.

Torson, Zhang, M.L., Ong, K., Mohammad, L. Smith, A.J., Doucet, D., Roe, A.D. & Sinclair, B.J. 2021 Cold tolerance of laboratory-reared Asian longhorned beetles. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 257: 110957.

Torson, A.S., Zhang, M. L., Smith, A.J., Mohammad, L., Ong, K., Doucet, D. Roe, A.D., Sinclair, B.J. 2021. Dormancy in laboratory-reared Asian longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis. Journal of Insect Physiology 130: 104179.

*Smith, A., *Turnbull, K.F., Moulton, J.F., & Sinclair, B.J. 2021. Metabolic cost of freeze-thaw and source of CO2 production in the freeze-tolerant cricket Gryllus veletis. Journal of Experimental Biology 224: jeb234419.

Ciancio, J.J., Turnbull, K.F., Gariepy, T.D. & Sinclair, B.J. 2021. Cold tolerance, water balance, energetics, gas exchange, and diapause in overwintering brown marmorated stink bugs. Journal of Insect Physiology 128: 104171.


Torson, A.S., Dong, Y.-w. & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. Help, there are 'omics' in my comparative physiology! Journal of Experimental Biology 223: jeb191262.

Jiménez-Padilla, Y., Esan, E., Floate, K.D. & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. Persistence of diet effects on the Drosophila suzukii microbiota. Canadian Entomologist 152: 516-531.

Jiménez-Padilla, Y., Ferguson, L.V., & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. Comparing apples and oranges (and blueberries and grapes): fruit type affects development and cold-susceptibility of immature Drosophila suzukii. Canadian Entomologist 152: 532-545.

Torson, A.S., Des Marteaux, L.E., Bowman, S., Zhang, M.L., Ong, K., Doucet, D. Sinclair, B.J., & Roe, A.D. 2020. Dissection of cerambycid beetle larval tissues for physiological and molecular studies. Canadian Entomologist 152: 399-409.

Lebenzon, J.E., Des Marteaux, L.E. & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. Reversing sodium differentials between the hemolymph and hindgut speeds chill coma recovery but reduces survival in the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 244: 110699.

Li, N.G., Toxopeus, J., Moos, M., Sørensen, J.G. & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. A comparison of low temperature biology of Pieris rapae from Ontario, Canada, and Yakutia, Far Eastern Russia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 242: 110649.

Ferguson, L.V. & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. Thermal variability and plasticity drive the outcome of a host-pathogen interaction. American Naturalist 195: 603-615.


Anthony, S.E., Buddle, C.M., Høye, T.T. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Thermal limits of summer-collected Pardosa wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) from the Yukon Territory and Greenland. Polar Biology 42: 2055-2064.

Tang, J.M., Jiménez-Padilla, Y., Lachance, M.-A. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Gut yeasts do not improve desiccation survival in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Insect Physiology 117: 103893.

Toxopeus, J., Koštál, V. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Evidence for non-colligative function of small cryoprotectants in a freeze-tolerant insect. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 286: 20190050.

Anthony, S.E. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Overwintering red velvet mites are freeze tolerant. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 92: 201-205.

Toxopeus, J., McKinnon, A. H, Štětina, T, Turnbull, K.F. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Laboratory acclimation to autumn-like conditions induces freeze tolerance in the spring field cricket Gryllus veletis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 113: 9-16.

Karsten, M., Lebenzon, J.E., Terblanche, J.S. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Loss of ion homeostasis is not the cause of chill coma or impaired dispersal in false codling moth Thaumatotobia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 229: 40-44.

Toxopeus, J., Des Marteaux, L.E. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. How insects become freeze tolerant: the transcriptomic underpinnings of acclimation in Gryllus veletis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology D 29: 55-66.

Barton, M.G., Terblanche, J.S.. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Incorporating temperature and precipitation extremes into process-based models of African Lepidoptera changes the predicted distribution under climate change. Ecological Modelling 394: 53-65.


Marshall, D.J., Brahim, A., Mustapha, N., Dong, Y. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Substantial heat-tolerance acclimation capacity in tropical thermophilic snails, but to what benefit? Journal of Experimental Biology 221: jeb187476.

Toxopeus, J. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Mechanisms underlying insect freeze tolerance. Biological Reviews 93: 1891-1914.

Ferguson, L.V., Dhakal, P., Lebenzon, J.E., Heinrichs, D.E., Bucking, C. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Seasonal shifts in the insect gut microbiome are concurrent with changes in cold tolerance and immunity. Functional Ecology 32: 2357-2368.

Cuddington, K., Sobek-Swant, S., Crosthwaite, J.C., Lyons, D.B. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Potential emerald ash borer distribution for Canadian cities and North America: A mechanistic model. Biological Invasions  20: 2661-2711.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Repeated freezing induces a trade-off between cryoprotection and egg production in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis. Journal of Experimental Biology 221: jeb177956. Featured in Inside JEB.

Ferguson, L.V., Kortet, R. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Eco-immunology in the cold: the role of immunity in shaping overwintering survival of ectotherms. Journal of Experimental Biology 221: jeb163873 .

Sinclair, B.J. & Marshall, K.E. (2018) The many roles of fats in overwintering insects. Journal of Experimental Biology 221:jeb161836.

Des Marteaux, L.E., Stinziano, J.R. & Sinclair, B.J. (2018) Effects of cold acclimation on rectal macromorphology, ultrastructure, and cytoskeletal stability in Gryllus pennsylvanicus crickets. Journal of Insect Physiology 104: 15-24.

Des Marteaux, L.E., Khazraeenia, S., Yerushalmi, G.Y., Donini, A., Li, N.G. & Sinclair, B.J. (2018) The effect of cold acclimation on active ion transport in cricket ionoregulatory tissues. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 216: 28-33.


Ferguson, L.V. & Sinclair, B.J. (2017) Insect immunity varies idiosyncratically during overwintering. Journal of Experimental Zoology 327A: 222-234.

Newman, C., Toxopeus, J., Udaka, H., Ahn, S., Martynowicz, D., Graether, S., Sinclair, B.J. & Percival-Smith, A. (2017) CRISPR-induced null alleles show that Frost protects Drosophila melanogaster reproduction after cold exposure. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 3344-3354.

Berzitis, E.A., Hunter, K.A., Hager, H.A., Sinclair, B.J., Hallett, R.H. & Newman, J.A. (2017) Winter warming effects on overwinter survival, energy use, and spring emergence of Cerotoma trifurcata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Agricultural and Forest Entomology 19: 163-170.

Des Marteaux, L.E., McKinnon, A. H, Udaka, H., Toxopeus, J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2017) Effects of cold-acclimation on gene expression in Fall field cricket ionoregulatory tissues. BMC Genomics 18: 357.

Potvin, C. et al. (65 other authors in alphabetical order, including Sinclair, B.J.) (2017) Stimulating a Canadian narrative for climate. FACETS 2: 131-149.

Haupt, T.M., Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2017) Thermal preference and performance in a sub-Antarctic caterpillar: a test of the coadaptation hypothesis and its alternatives. Journal of Insect Physiology 98: 108-116.

Salehipour-shirazi, G., Ferguson, L.V. & Sinclair, B.J. (2017) Does cold activate the Drosophila melanogaster immune system? Journal of Insect Physiology 96: 29-34.

Jakobs, R., Ahmadi, B., Houben, S., Gariepy, T.D. & Sinclair, B.J. (2017) Cold tolerance of third-instar Drosophila suzukii larvae. Journal of Insect Physiology 96: 45-52.


Toxopeus, J., Lebenzon, J.E., McKinnon, A.H & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Freeze tolerance of Cyphoderris monstrosa (Orthoptera: Prophalangopsidae). The Canadian Entomologist 148: 668-672.

Koštál, V. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Editorial overview: Global Change Biology – Linking pattern and process to prediction and policy.  Current Opinion in Insect Science 17: iv-v.

Sinclair, B.J., Marshall, K.E., Sewell, M.A., Levesque, D.L., Willett, C.S., Slotsbo, S., Dong, Y., Harley, C.D.G., Marshall, D.J., Helmuth, B.S. & Huey, R.B. (2016) Can we predict ectotherm responses to climate change using thermal performance curves and body temperatures? Ecology Letters 19: 1372-1385.

Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Book Review: Big Questions about Organisms, a review of Integrative Organismal Biology. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 89: 453-455.

Kaunisto, S., Ferguson, L.V. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Can we predict the effects of multiple stressors on insects in a changing climate? Current Opinion in Insect Science 17: 55-61.

Anthony, S.E., Buddle, C.M. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Thermal biology and immersion tolerance of the Beringian pseudoscorpion Wyochernes asiaticus. Polar Biology 39: 1351-1355.

MacMillan, H.A., Knee, J.M., Dennis, A.B., Udaka, H., Marshall, K.E., Merritt, T.J.S. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Cold acclimation wholly reorganizes the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome and metabolome. Scientific Reports 6: 28999.

Ferguson, L.V., Heinrichs, D.E., & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Paradoxical acclimation responses in the thermal performance of insect immunity. Oecologia 181: 77-85.

Des Marteaux, L.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Ion and water balance in Gryllus crickets during the first twelve hours of cold exposure.  Journal of Insect Physiology 89: 19-27.

Toxopeus, J., Jakobs, R., Ferguson, L.V., Gariepy, L.V. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Reproductive arrest and stress resistance in winter-acclimated Drosophila suzukiiJournal of Insect Physiology 89: 37-51.

Madliger, C.L., Cooke, S.J., Crespi, E.J., Funk, J.L., Hultine, K.R., Hunt, KE., Rohr, J.E., Sinclair, B.J., Suski, C.D., Willis, C.K.R. & Love, O.R. (2016) Success stories and emerging themes in Conservation Physiology. Conservation Physiology 4: cov057.

Ahmadi, B., Moharramipour, S. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Overwintering biology of the carob moth Apomyelois ceratoniae (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera). International Journal of Pest management 62: 69-74.

Haupt, T.M., Sinclair, B.J., Shaw, J.D. & Chown, S.L. (2016) Further support for thermal ecosystem engineering by wandering albatross on Marion Island. Antarctic Science 28: 35-43.

Chown, S.L., Haupt, T.M. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Similar metabolic rate-temperature relationships after acclimation at constant and fluctuating temperatures in caterpillars of a sub-Antarctic moth.  Journal of Insect Physiology 85: 10-16.


Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Linking energetics and overwintering in temperate insects.  Journal of Thermal Biology 54: 5-11.

Sinclair, B.J., Coello Alvarado, L.E., & Ferguson, L.V. (2015) An invitation to measure insect cold tolerance: methods, approaches, and workflow. Journal of Thermal Biology 53: 180-197.

Dennis, A.B., Dunning, L.T., Sinclair, B.J. & Buckley, T.R. (2015) Parallel molecular routes to cold adaptation in eight genera of New Zealand stick insects. Scientific Reports 5: 13695.

Boychuk, E.C., Smiley, J.T., Dahlhoff, E.P., Bernards, M.A., Rank, N.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Cold tolerance of the montane Sierra leaf beetle, Chrysomela aeneicollis. Journal of Insect Physiology 81: 157-166.

King, K.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Water loss in tree weta (Hemideina): adaptation to the montane environment and a test of the melanisation-desiccation resistance hypothesis.  Journal of Experimental Biology 218: 1995-2004. Featured in Inside JEB.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) New fat fuels frozen flies. Journal of Student Science and Technology 8: 64-68. (invited 'Science from the Source' article)

Jakobs, R., Gariepy, T.D. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Adult plasticity of cold tolerance in a continental-temperate population of Drosophila suzukii. Journal of Insect Physiology 79: 1-9.

Coello Alvarado, L.E., MacMillan, H.A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Chill-tolerant Gryllus crickets maintain ion balance at low temperatures.  Journal of Insect Physiology 77: 15-25.

Williams, C.M., Chick, W.D. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) A cross-seasonal perspective on local adaptation: Metabolic plasticity mediates responses to winter in a thermal-generalist moth.  Functional Ecology 29: 549-561. (Cover article).

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) The relative importance of number, duration, and intensity of cold stress events in determining survival and energetics of an overwintering insect.  Functional Ecology 29: 357-366.

Bulgarella, M., Trewick, S.A., Godfrey, A.J.R., Sinclair, B.J. & Morgan-Richards, M. (2015).  Elevational variation in adult body size and growth rate, but not in metabolic rate in tree weta Hemideina crassidens. Journal of Insect Physiology 75: 30-38.

Williams, C.M., Henry, H.A.L. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Cold truths: how winter drives responses of terrestrial organisms to climate change.  Biological Reviews 90: 214-235. Recommended on Faculty of 1000.

MacMillan, H.A., Ferguson, L.V., Nicolai, A., Donini, A., Staples, J.F. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Parallel ionoregulatory adjustments underlie phenotypic plasticity and evolution of Drosophila cold tolerance. Journal of Experimental Biology 218: 423-432.

Stinziano, J.R., Sové, R.J., Rundle, H.D. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Rapid desiccation hardening changes the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 180: 38-42 .

Colinet, H., Sinclair, B.J., Vernon, P. & Renault, D. (2015) Insects in fluctuating thermal environments.  Annual Review of Entomology 60: 123-140.


Sinclair, B.J. (2014) Editorial Overview: Insect Environmental Physiology.  Current Opinion in Insect Science 4: ix-x.

Sinclair, B.J. (2014) Worrying about weird winters. Temperature 1: 18-19.

Williams, C.M., Nicolai, A., Ferguson, L.V., Bernards, M.A., Hellmann, J.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2014) Cold hardiness and deacclimation of overwintering Papilio zelicaon pupae.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 178, 51-58.

Udaka, H. & Sinclair, B.J. (2014) The overwintering biology of the acorn weevil, Curculio glandium in southwestern Ontario.  Journal of Thermal Biology 44, 103-109.

Dunning, L.T., Dennis, A.B., Sinclair, B.J., Newcomb, R.D. & Buckley, T.R. (2014) Divergent transcriptional responses to low temperature among populations of alpine and lowland species of New Zealand stick insects (Micrarchus).  Molecular Ecology 23: 2712-2726.

Marshall, K.E., Thomas, R.H., Roxin, A., Chen, E.K.Y., Brown, J.C.L., Gillies, E.R. & Sinclair, B.J. (2014) Seasonal accumulation of acetylated triacylglycerols by a freeze tolerant insect.  Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1580-1587 Featured in Inside JEB.

Dennis, A.B., Dunning, L.T., Dennis, C.J., Sinclair, B.J. & Buckley, T.R. (2014) Overwintering in New Zealand stick insects. New Zealand Entomologist 37, 35-44.

Haupt, T.M., Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2014) Chemosensory and thermal cue responses in the sub-Antarctic moth Pringleophaga marioni: do caterpillars choose Wandering Albatross nest proxies?  Polar Biology 37: 555-563.


Dunning, L.T., Dennis, A.B., Thomson, G., Sinclair, B.J., Newcomb, R.D. & Buckley, T.R. (2013) Positive selection in glycolysis among Australasian stick insects.  BMC Evolutionary Biology 13: 215.

Sinclair, B.J., Ferguson, L.V., Salehipour-shirazi, G. & MacMillan, H.A. (2013) Cross-tolerance and cross-talk in the cold: relating low temperatures to desiccation and immune stress in insects.  Integrative and Comparative Biology 53: 545-556.

Udaka, H., Percival-Smith, A., & Sinclair, B.J. (2013) Increased abundance of Frost mRNA during recovery from cold stress is not essential for cold tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogasterInsect Molecular Biology 22: 541-550.

Clarke, M.W., Thompson, G.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2013) Cold tolerance of the Eastern Subterranean Termite, Reticulotermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), in Ontario.  Environmental Entomology 42: 805-810.

Lake, S.L., MacMillan, H.A., Williams, C.M. & Sinclair, B.J. (2013) Static and dynamic approaches yield similar estimates of the thermal sensitivity of insect metabolism.  Journal of Insect Physiology 59: 761-766.

Mitchell, K.A., Sinclair, B.J. & Terblanche, J.S. (2013) Ontogenetic variation in cold tolerance plasticity in Drosophila: is the Bogert effect bogus?  Naturwissenschaften 100: 281-284.

Dunning, L.T., Dennis, A.B., Duckchul, C.P., Sinclair, B.J., Newcomb, R.D. & Buckley, T.R. (2013)  Identification of cold-responsive genes in a New Zealand alpine stick insect using RNA-Seq.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology D 8: 24-31.

Sinclair, B.J., Stinziano, J.R., Williams, C.M., MacMillan, H.A., Marshall, K.E. & Storey, K.B. (2013) Real-time measurement of metabolic rate during freezing and thawing of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: Implications for overwinter energy use.  Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 292-302.  Featured in Inside JEB.


MacMillan, H.A., Williams, C.M., Staples, J.F. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Reestablishment of ion homeostasis during chill-coma recovery in the cricket Gryllus pennsylvanicus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109: 20750-20755.

Sinclair, B.J., Williams, C.M. & Terblanche, J.S. (2012) Variation in thermal performance among insect populations.  Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85: 594-606.

Tattersall, G.J., Sinclair, B.J., Seebacher, F., Withers, P., Cooper, C., Fields, P. & Maloney, S. (2012) Coping with thermal challenges: Physiological adaptations to environmental temperatures.  Comprehensive Physiology 2: 2151-2202.

Williams, C.M., Hellmann, J.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Lepidopteran species differ in susceptibility to winter warming.  Climate Research 53: 119-130.

Ronges, D., Walsh, J.P., Sinclair, B.J. & Stillman, J.H. (2012) Changes in tolerance to extreme cold, membrane composition and the cardiac transcriptome during the first day of thermal acclimation in the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 1824-1836.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) The impacts of repeated cold exposures on insects. Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 1607-1613.

Williams, C.M., Marshall, K.E., MacMillan, H.A., Dzurisin, J.D.K., Hellmann, J.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Thermal variability increases the impact of autumnal warming and drives metabolic suppression in an overwintering butterfly.  PLoS ONE 7: e34470.

MacMillan, H.A., Williams, C.M., Staples, J.F. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Metabolism and energy supply below the critical thermal minimum of a chill-susceptible insect.  Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 1366-1372.

Lalouette, L., Williams, C.M., Cottin, M., Sinclair, B.J. & Renault, D. (2012) Thermal biology of the alien ground beetle Merizodius soledadinus introduced to the Kerguelen Islands. Polar Biology  35: 509-517.

Vermunt, B., Cuddington, K., Sobek-Swant, S., Crosthwaite, J.C., Lyons, D.B. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Temperatures experienced by wood-boring beetles in the under-bark microclimate. Forest Ecology and Management 269: 149-157.

Bing, X., Zhang, J. & Sinclair, B.J.  (2012) A comparison of Frost expression among species and life stages of DrosophilaInsect Molecular Biology 21:  31-39.

Sobek-Swant, S, Crosthwaite, J.C., Lyons, D.B. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012)  Could phenotypic plasticity limit an invasive species?  Incomplete reversibility of mid-winter deacclimation in emerald ash borer.  Biological Invasions 14: 115-125.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Threshold temperatures mediate the impact of reduced snow cover on overwintering freeze tolerant caterpillars.  Naturwissenschaften 99: 33-41.


Zhang, J., Marshall, K.E., Westwood, J.T., Clark, M.S. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) Divergent transcriptomic responses to repeated and single cold exposures in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 4021-4029.

Ransberry, V.E., MacMillan, H.A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011). The relationship between chill-coma onset and recovery at the extremes of the thermal window of Drosophila melanogaster.  Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 84: 553-559.

Williams, C.M., Thomas, R.H., MacMillan, H.A., Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011)  Triacylglyceride measurement in small quantities of homogenised insect tissue: comparisons and caveats.  Journal of Insect Physiology 57: 1602-1613.

Bokhorst, S., Huiskes, A., Convey, P., Sinclair, B.J., Lebouvier, M., Van de Vijver, B., & Wall, D.H.  (2011) Passive warming methods in Antarctica: implications for climate change studies.  Polar Biology 34: 1421-1435.

Nyamukondiwa, C., Terblanche, J.S., Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) Basal cold- but not heat-tolerance constrains plasticity among Drosophila species (Diptera: Drosophilidae).  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24: 1927-1938.

Sobek, S., Rajamohan, A., Dillon, D., Cumming, R.C. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) High temperature tolerance and thermal plasticity in emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  Agricultural and Forest Entomology 13:  333-340.

Boardman, L., Terblanche, J.S. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) Transmembrane ion distribution during recovery from freezing in the woolly bear caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).  Journal of Insect Physiology. 57: 1154-1162.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J.  (2011) The sublethal effects of repeated freezing in the woolly bear caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabellaJournal of Experimental Biology 214: 1205-1212. Featured on the Promega Connections Blog.

Sinclair, B.J.,  Bretman, A, Tregenza, T., Tomkins, J.L. & Hosken, D.J. (2011) Metabolic rate does not decrease with starvation in Gryllus bimaculatus when changing fuel use is taken into account.  Physiological Entomology 36: 84-89.

MacMillan, H.A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011).  The role of the gut in insect chilling-injury: cold-induced disruption of osmoregulation in the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus.  Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 726-734.

Strachan, L.A., Tarnowski-Garner, H.E., Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) The evolution of cold tolerance in Drosophila larvae.  Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 84: 43-53.  Download supplementary material. Recommended  on Faculty of 1000

Crosthwaite, J.C., Sobek, S., Lyons, D.B., Bernards, M.A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  Journal of Insect Physiology 57: 166-173.

MacAlpine, J.L.P., Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) The effects of CO2 and chronic cold exposure on fecundity of female Drosophila melanogaster.  Journal of Insect Physiology 57: 35-37.

MacMillan, H.A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) Mechanisms underlying insect chill-coma.  Journal of Insect Physiology 57: 12-20.

Lalouette, L., Williams, C.M., Hervant, F., Sinclair, B.J., Renault, D. (2011) Metabolic rate and oxidative stress in insects exposed to low temperature thermal fluctuations.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 158: 229-234.


Bazinet, A.L., Marshall, K.E., MacMillan, H.A., Williams, C.M. & Sinclair, B.J. (2010) Rapid changes in desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster are facilitated by changes in cuticular permeability.  Journal of Insect Physiology 56: 2006-2012.

Chown, S.L. & Sinclair, B. J. (2010).  The Macrophysiology of insect thermal limits.  Pp. 191-223 In: Denlinger, D.L. and Lee, R.E., eds.  Insect Low Temperature Biology. Cambridge University Press.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2010) Repeated stress exposure results in a survival-reproduction tradeoff in Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277: 963-969.

Williams, C.M., Pelini, S.L., Hellmann, J.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2010) Intra-individual variation allows an explicit test of the hygric hypothesis for discontinuous gas exchange in insects.  Biology Letters 6: 274-277.

Sinclair, B.J. & Renault, D. (2010) Intracellular ice formation in insects: Unresolved after 50 years?  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 155: 14-18.


Sinclair, B.J., Gibbs, A.G., Lee, W.-K., Rajamohan, A., Roberts, S.P. & Socha, J.J. (2009).  Syncrotron x-ray visualisation of ice formation in insects during lethal and non-lethal freezing.  PLoS ONE 4: e8259.

Pelini, S.L., Dzurisin, J.D.K., Prior, K.M., Williams, C.M., Marsico, T.D., Sinclair, B.J. & Hellmann, J.J. (2009) Translocation experiments with butterflies reveal limits to enhancement of poleward populations under climate change.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 11160-11165.  Recommended on Faculty of 1000

Rajamohan, A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2009) Hardening trumps acclimation in improving cold tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.  Physiological Entomology 34: 217-223.

Yeates, G.W., Scott, M.B., Chown, S.L. & Sinclair, B.J. (2009) Changes in soil nematode populations indicate an annual life cycle at Cape Hallett, Antarctica.  Pedobiologia 52: 375-386.

MacMillan, H.A., Guglielmo, G.G. & Sinclair, B.J. (2009)  Membrane remodeling and glucose in Drosophila melanogaster: A test of rapid cold-hardening and chilling tolerance hypotheses.  Journal of Insect Physiology 55: 243-249.

MacMillan, H.A., Walsh, J.P. & Sinclair, B.J. (2009) The effects of selection for cold tolerance on cross tolerance to other environmental stressors in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. Insect Science 16: 263-276.


Chown, S.L., Sørensen, J.G. and Sinclair, B.J. (2008) Physiological variation and phenotypic plasticity – A response to Hawes and Bale. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 3353-3357.

Scott, M.B., Dickinson, K.J.M., Barratt, B.I.P. & Sinclair, B.J. (2008) Temperature and moisture trends in non-sorted earth hummocks and stripes on the Old Man Range, New Zealand: Implications for mechanisms of maintenance.  Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 19: 305-314.

Chown, S.L., Sinclair, B.J. & Jansen van Vuuren, B.J. (2008) DNA barcoding and the documentation of alien species establishment on sub-Antarctic Marion Island.  Polar Biology31: 651-655.

Rajamohan, A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2008) Short term hardening effects on survival of acute and chronic cold exposure by Drosophila melanogaster larvae.  Journal of Insect Physiology 54: 708-718. Online data for this paper available here.

Sinclair, B.J . & Rajamohan, A. (2008) Slow and stepped re-warming after acute low temperature exposure do not improve survival of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.  The Canadian Entomologist 140: 306-311.

Sinclair, B.J., Nelson, S., Nilson, T. L., Roberts, S.P. & Gibbs, A.G.  (2007) The effect of selection for desiccation resistance on cold tolerance of Drosophila melanogasterPhysiological Entomology 32: 322-327.

Sinclair, B.J., Gibbs, A.G. & Roberts, S.P. (2007) Gene transcription during exposure to, and recovery from, cold and desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogasterInsect Molecular Biology 16: 435-443.

Nilson, T.L., Sinclair, B.J. & Roberts, S.P. (2006) The effects of carbon dioxide anesthesia and anoxia on rapid cold-hardening and chill coma recovery in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Insect Physiology 52: 1027-1033.

Sinclair, B.J. & Stevens, M.I. (2006) Terrestrial microarthropods of Victoria Land and Queen Maud Mountains, Antarctica: implications of climate change.  Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38: 3158-3170.

Deere, J.A., Sinclair, B.J., Marshall, D.J. & Chown, S.L. (2006) Phenotypic plasticity of thermal tolerances in five oribatid mite species from sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Journal of Insect Physiology 52: 693-700.

Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2006) Caterpillars benefit from thermal ecosystem engineering by Wandering Albatrosses on sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Biology Letters 2: 51-54.

Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2006) Rapid cold-hardening in a Karoo beetle, Afrinus sp. Physiological Entomology 31: 98-101.

Sinclair, B.J., Scott, M.B., Klok, C.J., Terblanche, J.S., Marshall, D.J., Reyers, B. & Chown, S.L.  (2006) Determinants of terrestrial arthropod community composition at Cape Hallett, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 18: 303-312.

Sinclair, B.J. & Stevens, M.I. (2006) Terrestrial microarthropods of Victoria Land and Queen Maud Mountains, Antarctica: implications of climate change.  Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38: 3158-3170.

Sinclair, B.J., Terblanche, J.S., Scott, M.B., Blatch, G., Klok, C.J. & Chown, S.L. (2006) Environmental physiology of three species ofspringtail at Cape Hallett, North Victoria Land, Antarctica. Journal of Insect Physiology 52: 29-50.


Parr, C.L., Sinclair, B.J., Anderson, A.N., Gaston, K.J. & Chown, S.L. (2005) Constraint and competition in assemblages: across-continental and modelling approach for ants.  American Naturalist 165: 481-494.

Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2005) Deleterious effects of repeated cold exposure in a sub-Antarctic caterpillar.  Journal of Experimental Biology 208: 869-879.

Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2005) Climatic variability and hemispheric differences in insect cold tolerance: Support from southern Africa. Functional Ecology 19: 214-221.

Sinclair, B.J. & Roberts, S.P.  (2005) Acclimation, shock and hardening in the cold. Journal of Thermal Biology 30: 557-562.

Terblanche, J.S., Sinclair, B.J., Klok, C.J., McFarlane, M.L. & Chown, S.L. (2005) The effects of acclimation on thermal tolerance, desiccation resistance and metabolic rate in Chirodica chalcoptera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 51: 1013-1023.


Chown, S.L., Sinclair, B.J., Leinaas, H.P. & Gaston, K.J. (2004) Hemispheric asymmetries in biodiversity – A serious matter for ecology.  PLoS Biology  2: 1701-1707.

Klok, C. J., Sinclair, B. J. & Chown, S.L. (2004) Upper thermal tolerance and oxygen-limitation in terrestrial arthropods. Journal of Experimental Biology 207: 2361-2370.

Nondula, N., Marshall, D.J., Baxter, R., Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2004) Life history and osmoregulatory ability of Telmatogeton amphibius (Chironomidae) at Marion Island.  Polar Biology 27: 629-635.

Sinclair, B.J., Klok, C.J & Chown, S.L. (2004) Metabolism of the sub-Antarctic caterpillar Pringleophaga marioni during cooling, freezing and thawing. Journal of Experimental Biology 207: 1287-1294. (Featured article)

Sinclair, B.J., Marshall, D.J., Singh, S., & Chown, S.L. (2004) Cold tolerance of Littorinidae from Southern Africa: Intertidal snails are not constrained to freeze tolerance. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 174: 617-624.

Williams, C.M., Poulin, R. & Sinclair, B.J. (2004) Increased haemolymph osmolality suggests a new route for behavioural manipulation of Talorchestia quoyana (Amphipoda: Talitridae) by its mermithid parasite. Functional Ecology 18: 685-691.


Sinclair, B.J., Klok, C.J., Scott, M.B., Terblanche, J.S. & Chown, S.L. (2003) Diurnal variation in supercooling points of three species of Collembola from Cape Hallett, Antarctica. Journal of Insect Physiology 49: 1049-1061.

Sinclair, B.J., Vernon, P., Klok, C.J. & Chown, S.L. (2003) Insects at Low Temperatures: An Ecological Perspective.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18: 257-262.

Sinclair, B.J., Addo-Bediako, A. & Chown, S.L. (2003) Climatic variability and the evolution of insect freeze tolerance. Biological Reviews 78: 181-195.

Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2003)  Rapid cold hardening responses to high temperature and desiccation, but not to low temperature in the freeze tolerant sub-Antarctic caterpillar Pringleophaga marioni (Lepidoptera, Tineidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 49: 45-52.


Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2002) Haemolymph osmolality and thermal hysteresis activity in 17 species of arthropods from sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Polar Biology 25: 928-933.

Sinclair, B.J. (2002)  Effects of increased temperatures simulating climate change on terrestrial invertebrates on Ross Island, Antarctica.  Pedobiologia 46: 150-160.

Sjursen, H. & Sinclair, B.J. (2002) On the cold hardiness of Stereotydeus mollis (Acari: Prostigmata) from Ross Island, Antarctica. Pedobiologia 46: 188-195.


Sinclair, B.J.  (2001) Biologically relevant environmental data: Macros to make the most of microclimate recordings.  CryoLetters 22: 125-134.These macros have now been well-superceded by packages in R. I strongly recommend contacting Katie Marshall at the University of Oklahoma (although this paper still has value for other reasons)  .

Sinclair, B.J.  (2001)  Field Ecology of Freeze-Tolerance: Interannual variation in cooling rates, freeze-thaw and thermal stress in the microhabitat of the alpine cockroach Celatoblatta quinquemaculata.   Oikos 93: 286-293.

Sinclair, B.J.  (2001) On the distribution of Terrestrial invertebrates at Cape Bird, Ross Island, Antarctica.  Polar Biology 24: 394-400.

Sinclair, B.J., Lord, J.M. & Thompson, C.M. (2001) Microhabitat selection and seasonality of alpine invertebrates. Pedobiologia 45: 107-120.

Sinclair, B.J. & Sjursen, H. (2001) Cold tolerance of the Antarctic springtail Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni (Collembola: Hypogastruridae).  Antarctic Science 13: 271-279.

Sinclair, B.J. & Sjursen, H.  (2001) Terrestrial invertebrate abundance and habitat in Keble Valley, Ross Island, Antarctica. Pedobiologia 45: 134-145.


Sinclair, B.J.  (2000) Water relations of the freeze-tolerant New Zealand alpine cockroach Celatoblatta quinquemaculata (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).  Journal of Insect Physiology 46: 869-876.


Sinclair, B.J.  (1999) Insect cold tolerance: How many kinds of frozen?  European Journal of Entomology 96: 157-164.

Sinclair, B.J., Worland, M.R., & Wharton, D.A.  (1999) Ice nucleation and freezing tolerance in New Zealand alpine and lowland weta, Hemideina spp. (Orthoptera; Stenopelmatidae).  Physiological Entomology 24: 56-63.


Block, W., Wharton, D.A. & Sinclair, B.J.  (1998) Cold tolerance of a New Zealand alpine cockroach, Celatoblatta quinquemaculata (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).  Physiological Entomology 23 1-6.


Sinclair, B.J.  (1997) Seasonal variation in freezing tolerance of the New Zealand alpine cockroach Celatoblatta quinquemaculata.  Ecological Entomology 22:  462-467.

Sinclair, B.J. & Wharton, D.A. (1997) Avoidance of Intracellular Freezing by the New Zealand Alpine Weta Hemideina maori (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).  Journal of Insect Physiology 43: 621-625.

Worland, M.R., Sinclair, B.J. & Wharton, D.A.  (1997) Ice nucleator activity in a New Zealand alpine cockroach Celatoblatta quinquemaculata (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).  Cryo-Letters 18: 327-334.