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For reprints, please visit the journals' websites or contact Dr. Sinclair. *contributed equally.


Beet, C.R., Hogg, I.D., Cary, S.C., McDonald, I.R. & Sinclair, B.J. in press. The resilience of polar Collembola (springtails) in a changing climate.Current Research in Insect Science.

Meehan, M.L., Turnbull, K.F., Sinclair, B.J. & Lindo, Z. 2022. Predators minimize energy costs, rather than maximize energy gains under warming: Evidence from a microcosm feeding experiment. Functional Ecology 36: 2279-2288.

Lebenzon, J.E., Denezis, P.W., Mohammad, L., Mathers, K.E., Turnbull, K.F., Staples, J.F. & Sinclair, B.J. 2022. Reversible mitophagy drives metabolic suppression in diapausing beetles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A.119: e2201089119.

Sinclair, B.J., Sørensen, J.G. and Terblanche, J.S. 2022. Harnessing thermal plasticity to enhance the performance of mass-reared insects: Opportunities and Challenges. Bulletin of Entomological Research 112: 441-450.

Duell, M.E., Gray, M.T., Roe, A.D., MacQuarrie, C.J.K. & Sinclair, B.J. 2022. Plasticity drives extreme cold tolerance of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) during a polar vortex. Current Research in Insect Science 2: 10031.


Torson, A.S., Hicks, A.M.A., Baragar, C.E., Smith, D.R. & Sinclair, B.J. 2021. The mitochondrial genome of two Gryllus crickets (Grylloidea: Gryllidae) via RNA-seq. Mitochondrial DNA B 7: 106-107.

Lebenzon, J.E., Torson, A.S. and Sinclair, B.J. 2021. Diapause differentially modulates the transcriptomes of fat body and flight muscle in the flight muscle in the Colorado potato beetle. Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry D 40: 100906.

Studd, E.K., A.E. Bates, A.J. Bramburger, T. Fernandes, B. Hayden, H.A.L. Henry, M.M. Humphries, R. Martin, B.C. McMeans, E.R.D. Moise, A.M. O’Sullivan, S. Sharma, B.J. Sinclair, A.O. Sutton, P.H. Templer and S.J. Cooke.  2021.  Nine maxims for the ecology of cold-climate winters.  BioScience 71: 820-830.

Lebenzon, J.E., Toxopeus, J., Anthony, S.E. & Sinclair, B.J. 2021. De novo assembly and characterisation of the transcriptome of the Beringian pseudoscorpion. Canadian Entomologist 153: 301-313.

Anthony, S.E., Buddle, C.M., Høye, T.T., Hein, N. & Sinclair, B.J. 2021. Thermal acclimation has limited effect on the thermal tolerances of summer-collected Arctic and sub-Arctic wolf spiders. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 257: 110974.

Torson, Zhang, M.L., Ong, K., Mohammad, L. Smith, A.J., Doucet, D., Roe, A.D. & Sinclair, B.J. 2021 Cold tolerance of laboratory-reared Asian longhorned beetles. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 257: 110957.

Torson, A.S., Zhang, M. L., Smith, A.J., Mohammad, L., Ong, K., Doucet, D. Roe, A.D., Sinclair, B.J. 2021. Dormancy in laboratory-reared Asian longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis. Journal of Insect Physiology 130: 104179.

*Smith, A., *Turnbull, K.F., Moulton, J.F., & Sinclair, B.J. 2021. Metabolic cost of freeze-thaw and source of CO2 production in the freeze-tolerant cricket Gryllus veletis. Journal of Experimental Biology 224: jeb234419.

Ciancio, J.J., Turnbull, K.F., Gariepy, T.D. & Sinclair, B.J. 2021. Cold tolerance, water balance, energetics, gas exchange, and diapause in overwintering brown marmorated stink bugs. Journal of Insect Physiology 128: 104171.


Torson, A.S., Dong, Y.-w. & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. Help, there are 'omics' in my comparative physiology! Journal of Experimental Biology 223: jeb191262.

Jiménez-Padilla, Y., Esan, E., Floate, K.D. & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. Persistence of diet effects on the Drosophila suzukii microbiota. Canadian Entomologist 152: 516-531.

Jiménez-Padilla, Y., Ferguson, L.V., & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. Comparing apples and oranges (and blueberries and grapes): fruit type affects development and cold-susceptibility of immature Drosophila suzukii. Canadian Entomologist 152: 532-545.

Torson, A.S., Des Marteaux, L.E., Bowman, S., Zhang, M.L., Ong, K., Doucet, D. Sinclair, B.J., & Roe, A.D. 2020. Dissection of cerambycid beetle larval tissues for physiological and molecular studies. Canadian Entomologist 152: 399-409.

Lebenzon, J.E., Des Marteaux, L.E. & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. Reversing sodium differentials between the hemolymph and hindgut speeds chill coma recovery but reduces survival in the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 244: 110699.

Li, N.G., Toxopeus, J., Moos, M., Sørensen, J.G. & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. A comparison of low temperature biology of Pieris rapae from Ontario, Canada, and Yakutia, Far Eastern Russia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 242: 110649.

Ferguson, L.V. & Sinclair, B.J. 2020. Thermal variability and plasticity drive the outcome of a host-pathogen interaction. American Naturalist 195: 603-615.


Anthony, S.E., Buddle, C.M., Høye, T.T. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Thermal limits of summer-collected Pardosa wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) from the Yukon Territory and Greenland. Polar Biology 42: 2055-2064.

Tang, J.M., Jiménez-Padilla, Y., Lachance, M.-A. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Gut yeasts do not improve desiccation survival in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Insect Physiology 117: 103893.

Toxopeus, J., Koštál, V. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Evidence for non-colligative function of small cryoprotectants in a freeze-tolerant insect. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 286: 20190050.

Anthony, S.E. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Overwintering red velvet mites are freeze tolerant. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 92: 201-205.

Toxopeus, J., McKinnon, A. H, Štětina, T, Turnbull, K.F. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Laboratory acclimation to autumn-like conditions induces freeze tolerance in the spring field cricket Gryllus veletis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 113: 9-16.

Karsten, M., Lebenzon, J.E., Terblanche, J.S. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Loss of ion homeostasis is not the cause of chill coma or impaired dispersal in false codling moth Thaumatotobia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 229: 40-44.

Toxopeus, J., Des Marteaux, L.E. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. How insects become freeze tolerant: the transcriptomic underpinnings of acclimation in Gryllus veletis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology D 29: 55-66.

Barton, M.G., Terblanche, J.S.. & Sinclair, B.J. 2019. Incorporating temperature and precipitation extremes into process-based models of African Lepidoptera changes the predicted distribution under climate change. Ecological Modelling 394: 53-65.


Marshall, D.J., Brahim, A., Mustapha, N., Dong, Y. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Substantial heat-tolerance acclimation capacity in tropical thermophilic snails, but to what benefit? Journal of Experimental Biology 221: jeb187476.

Toxopeus, J. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Mechanisms underlying insect freeze tolerance. Biological Reviews 93: 1891-1914.

Ferguson, L.V., Dhakal, P., Lebenzon, J.E., Heinrichs, D.E., Bucking, C. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Seasonal shifts in the insect gut microbiome are concurrent with changes in cold tolerance and immunity. Functional Ecology 32: 2357-2368.

Cuddington, K., Sobek-Swant, S., Crosthwaite, J.C., Lyons, D.B. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Potential emerald ash borer distribution for Canadian cities and North America: A mechanistic model. Biological Invasions  20: 2661-2711.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Repeated freezing induces a trade-off between cryoprotection and egg production in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis. Journal of Experimental Biology 221: jeb177956. Featured in Inside JEB.

Ferguson, L.V., Kortet, R. & Sinclair, B.J. 2018. Eco-immunology in the cold: the role of immunity in shaping overwintering survival of ectotherms. Journal of Experimental Biology 221: jeb163873 .

Sinclair, B.J. & Marshall, K.E. (2018) The many roles of fats in overwintering insects. Journal of Experimental Biology 221:jeb161836.

Des Marteaux, L.E., Stinziano, J.R. & Sinclair, B.J. (2018) Effects of cold acclimation on rectal macromorphology, ultrastructure, and cytoskeletal stability in Gryllus pennsylvanicus crickets. Journal of Insect Physiology 104: 15-24.

Des Marteaux, L.E., Khazraeenia, S., Yerushalmi, G.Y., Donini, A., Li, N.G. & Sinclair, B.J. (2018) The effect of cold acclimation on active ion transport in cricket ionoregulatory tissues. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 216: 28-33.


Ferguson, L.V. & Sinclair, B.J. (2017) Insect immunity varies idiosyncratically during overwintering. Journal of Experimental Zoology 327A: 222-234.

Newman, C., Toxopeus, J., Udaka, H., Ahn, S., Martynowicz, D., Graether, S., Sinclair, B.J. & Percival-Smith, A. (2017) CRISPR-induced null alleles show that Frost protects Drosophila melanogaster reproduction after cold exposure. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 3344-3354.

Berzitis, E.A., Hunter, K.A., Hager, H.A., Sinclair, B.J., Hallett, R.H. & Newman, J.A. (2017) Winter warming effects on overwinter survival, energy use, and spring emergence of Cerotoma trifurcata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Agricultural and Forest Entomology 19: 163-170.

Des Marteaux, L.E., McKinnon, A. H, Udaka, H., Toxopeus, J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2017) Effects of cold-acclimation on gene expression in Fall field cricket ionoregulatory tissues. BMC Genomics 18: 357.

Potvin, C. et al. (65 other authors in alphabetical order, including Sinclair, B.J.) (2017) Stimulating a Canadian narrative for climate. FACETS 2: 131-149.

Haupt, T.M., Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2017) Thermal preference and performance in a sub-Antarctic caterpillar: a test of the coadaptation hypothesis and its alternatives. Journal of Insect Physiology 98: 108-116.

Salehipour-shirazi, G., Ferguson, L.V. & Sinclair, B.J. (2017) Does cold activate the Drosophila melanogaster immune system? Journal of Insect Physiology 96: 29-34.

Jakobs, R., Ahmadi, B., Houben, S., Gariepy, T.D. & Sinclair, B.J. (2017) Cold tolerance of third-instar Drosophila suzukii larvae. Journal of Insect Physiology 96: 45-52.


Toxopeus, J., Lebenzon, J.E., McKinnon, A.H & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Freeze tolerance of Cyphoderris monstrosa (Orthoptera: Prophalangopsidae). The Canadian Entomologist 148: 668-672.

Koštál, V. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Editorial overview: Global Change Biology – Linking pattern and process to prediction and policy.  Current Opinion in Insect Science 17: iv-v.

Sinclair, B.J., Marshall, K.E., Sewell, M.A., Levesque, D.L., Willett, C.S., Slotsbo, S., Dong, Y., Harley, C.D.G., Marshall, D.J., Helmuth, B.S. & Huey, R.B. (2016) Can we predict ectotherm responses to climate change using thermal performance curves and body temperatures? Ecology Letters 19: 1372-1385.

Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Book Review: Big Questions about Organisms, a review of Integrative Organismal Biology. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 89: 453-455.

Kaunisto, S., Ferguson, L.V. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Can we predict the effects of multiple stressors on insects in a changing climate? Current Opinion in Insect Science 17: 55-61.

Anthony, S.E., Buddle, C.M. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Thermal biology and immersion tolerance of the Beringian pseudoscorpion Wyochernes asiaticus. Polar Biology 39: 1351-1355.

MacMillan, H.A., Knee, J.M., Dennis, A.B., Udaka, H., Marshall, K.E., Merritt, T.J.S. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Cold acclimation wholly reorganizes the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome and metabolome. Scientific Reports 6: 28999.

Ferguson, L.V., Heinrichs, D.E., & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Paradoxical acclimation responses in the thermal performance of insect immunity. Oecologia 181: 77-85.

Des Marteaux, L.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Ion and water balance in Gryllus crickets during the first twelve hours of cold exposure.  Journal of Insect Physiology 89: 19-27.

Toxopeus, J., Jakobs, R., Ferguson, L.V., Gariepy, L.V. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Reproductive arrest and stress resistance in winter-acclimated Drosophila suzukiiJournal of Insect Physiology 89: 37-51.

Madliger, C.L., Cooke, S.J., Crespi, E.J., Funk, J.L., Hultine, K.R., Hunt, KE., Rohr, J.E., Sinclair, B.J., Suski, C.D., Willis, C.K.R. & Love, O.R. (2016) Success stories and emerging themes in Conservation Physiology. Conservation Physiology 4: cov057.

Ahmadi, B., Moharramipour, S. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Overwintering biology of the carob moth Apomyelois ceratoniae (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera). International Journal of Pest management 62: 69-74.

Haupt, T.M., Sinclair, B.J., Shaw, J.D. & Chown, S.L. (2016) Further support for thermal ecosystem engineering by wandering albatross on Marion Island. Antarctic Science 28: 35-43.

Chown, S.L., Haupt, T.M. & Sinclair, B.J. (2016) Similar metabolic rate-temperature relationships after acclimation at constant and fluctuating temperatures in caterpillars of a sub-Antarctic moth.  Journal of Insect Physiology 85: 10-16.


Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Linking energetics and overwintering in temperate insects.  Journal of Thermal Biology 54: 5-11.

Sinclair, B.J., Coello Alvarado, L.E., & Ferguson, L.V. (2015) An invitation to measure insect cold tolerance: methods, approaches, and workflow. Journal of Thermal Biology 53: 180-197.

Dennis, A.B., Dunning, L.T., Sinclair, B.J. & Buckley, T.R. (2015) Parallel molecular routes to cold adaptation in eight genera of New Zealand stick insects. Scientific Reports 5: 13695.

Boychuk, E.C., Smiley, J.T., Dahlhoff, E.P., Bernards, M.A., Rank, N.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Cold tolerance of the montane Sierra leaf beetle, Chrysomela aeneicollis. Journal of Insect Physiology 81: 157-166.

King, K.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Water loss in tree weta (Hemideina): adaptation to the montane environment and a test of the melanisation-desiccation resistance hypothesis.  Journal of Experimental Biology 218: 1995-2004. Featured in Inside JEB.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) New fat fuels frozen flies. Journal of Student Science and Technology 8: 64-68. (invited 'Science from the Source' article)

Jakobs, R., Gariepy, T.D. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Adult plasticity of cold tolerance in a continental-temperate population of Drosophila suzukii. Journal of Insect Physiology 79: 1-9.

Coello Alvarado, L.E., MacMillan, H.A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Chill-tolerant Gryllus crickets maintain ion balance at low temperatures.  Journal of Insect Physiology 77: 15-25.

Williams, C.M., Chick, W.D. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) A cross-seasonal perspective on local adaptation: Metabolic plasticity mediates responses to winter in a thermal-generalist moth.  Functional Ecology 29: 549-561. (Cover article).

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) The relative importance of number, duration, and intensity of cold stress events in determining survival and energetics of an overwintering insect.  Functional Ecology 29: 357-366.

Bulgarella, M., Trewick, S.A., Godfrey, A.J.R., Sinclair, B.J. & Morgan-Richards, M. (2015).  Elevational variation in adult body size and growth rate, but not in metabolic rate in tree weta Hemideina crassidens. Journal of Insect Physiology 75: 30-38.

Williams, C.M., Henry, H.A.L. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Cold truths: how winter drives responses of terrestrial organisms to climate change.  Biological Reviews 90: 214-235. Recommended on Faculty of 1000.

MacMillan, H.A., Ferguson, L.V., Nicolai, A., Donini, A., Staples, J.F. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Parallel ionoregulatory adjustments underlie phenotypic plasticity and evolution of Drosophila cold tolerance. Journal of Experimental Biology 218: 423-432.

Stinziano, J.R., Sové, R.J., Rundle, H.D. & Sinclair, B.J. (2015) Rapid desiccation hardening changes the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 180: 38-42 .

Colinet, H., Sinclair, B.J., Vernon, P. & Renault, D. (2015) Insects in fluctuating thermal environments.  Annual Review of Entomology 60: 123-140.


Sinclair, B.J. (2014) Editorial Overview: Insect Environmental Physiology.  Current Opinion in Insect Science 4: ix-x.

Sinclair, B.J. (2014) Worrying about weird winters. Temperature 1: 18-19.

Williams, C.M., Nicolai, A., Ferguson, L.V., Bernards, M.A., Hellmann, J.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2014) Cold hardiness and deacclimation of overwintering Papilio zelicaon pupae.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 178, 51-58.

Udaka, H. & Sinclair, B.J. (2014) The overwintering biology of the acorn weevil, Curculio glandium in southwestern Ontario.  Journal of Thermal Biology 44, 103-109.

Dunning, L.T., Dennis, A.B., Sinclair, B.J., Newcomb, R.D. & Buckley, T.R. (2014) Divergent transcriptional responses to low temperature among populations of alpine and lowland species of New Zealand stick insects (Micrarchus).  Molecular Ecology 23: 2712-2726.

Marshall, K.E., Thomas, R.H., Roxin, A., Chen, E.K.Y., Brown, J.C.L., Gillies, E.R. & Sinclair, B.J. (2014) Seasonal accumulation of acetylated triacylglycerols by a freeze tolerant insect.  Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1580-1587 Featured in Inside JEB.

Dennis, A.B., Dunning, L.T., Dennis, C.J., Sinclair, B.J. & Buckley, T.R. (2014) Overwintering in New Zealand stick insects. New Zealand Entomologist 37, 35-44.

Haupt, T.M., Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2014) Chemosensory and thermal cue responses in the sub-Antarctic moth Pringleophaga marioni: do caterpillars choose Wandering Albatross nest proxies?  Polar Biology 37: 555-563.


Dunning, L.T., Dennis, A.B., Thomson, G., Sinclair, B.J., Newcomb, R.D. & Buckley, T.R. (2013) Positive selection in glycolysis among Australasian stick insects.  BMC Evolutionary Biology 13: 215.

Sinclair, B.J., Ferguson, L.V., Salehipour-shirazi, G. & MacMillan, H.A. (2013) Cross-tolerance and cross-talk in the cold: relating low temperatures to desiccation and immune stress in insects.  Integrative and Comparative Biology 53: 545-556.

Udaka, H., Percival-Smith, A., & Sinclair, B.J. (2013) Increased abundance of Frost mRNA during recovery from cold stress is not essential for cold tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogasterInsect Molecular Biology 22: 541-550.

Clarke, M.W., Thompson, G.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2013) Cold tolerance of the Eastern Subterranean Termite, Reticulotermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), in Ontario.  Environmental Entomology 42: 805-810.

Lake, S.L., MacMillan, H.A., Williams, C.M. & Sinclair, B.J. (2013) Static and dynamic approaches yield similar estimates of the thermal sensitivity of insect metabolism.  Journal of Insect Physiology 59: 761-766.

Mitchell, K.A., Sinclair, B.J. & Terblanche, J.S. (2013) Ontogenetic variation in cold tolerance plasticity in Drosophila: is the Bogert effect bogus?  Naturwissenschaften 100: 281-284.

Dunning, L.T., Dennis, A.B., Duckchul, C.P., Sinclair, B.J., Newcomb, R.D. & Buckley, T.R. (2013)  Identification of cold-responsive genes in a New Zealand alpine stick insect using RNA-Seq.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology D 8: 24-31.

Sinclair, B.J., Stinziano, J.R., Williams, C.M., MacMillan, H.A., Marshall, K.E. & Storey, K.B. (2013) Real-time measurement of metabolic rate during freezing and thawing of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: Implications for overwinter energy use.  Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 292-302.  Featured in Inside JEB.


MacMillan, H.A., Williams, C.M., Staples, J.F. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Reestablishment of ion homeostasis during chill-coma recovery in the cricket Gryllus pennsylvanicus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109: 20750-20755.

Sinclair, B.J., Williams, C.M. & Terblanche, J.S. (2012) Variation in thermal performance among insect populations.  Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85: 594-606.

Tattersall, G.J., Sinclair, B.J., Seebacher, F., Withers, P., Cooper, C., Fields, P. & Maloney, S. (2012) Coping with thermal challenges: Physiological adaptations to environmental temperatures.  Comprehensive Physiology 2: 2151-2202.

Williams, C.M., Hellmann, J.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Lepidopteran species differ in susceptibility to winter warming.  Climate Research 53: 119-130.

Ronges, D., Walsh, J.P., Sinclair, B.J. & Stillman, J.H. (2012) Changes in tolerance to extreme cold, membrane composition and the cardiac transcriptome during the first day of thermal acclimation in the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 1824-1836.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) The impacts of repeated cold exposures on insects. Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 1607-1613.

Williams, C.M., Marshall, K.E., MacMillan, H.A., Dzurisin, J.D.K., Hellmann, J.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Thermal variability increases the impact of autumnal warming and drives metabolic suppression in an overwintering butterfly.  PLoS ONE 7: e34470.

MacMillan, H.A., Williams, C.M., Staples, J.F. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Metabolism and energy supply below the critical thermal minimum of a chill-susceptible insect.  Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 1366-1372.

Lalouette, L., Williams, C.M., Cottin, M., Sinclair, B.J. & Renault, D. (2012) Thermal biology of the alien ground beetle Merizodius soledadinus introduced to the Kerguelen Islands. Polar Biology  35: 509-517.

Vermunt, B., Cuddington, K., Sobek-Swant, S., Crosthwaite, J.C., Lyons, D.B. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Temperatures experienced by wood-boring beetles in the under-bark microclimate. Forest Ecology and Management 269: 149-157.

Bing, X., Zhang, J. & Sinclair, B.J.  (2012) A comparison of Frost expression among species and life stages of DrosophilaInsect Molecular Biology 21:  31-39.

Sobek-Swant, S, Crosthwaite, J.C., Lyons, D.B. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012)  Could phenotypic plasticity limit an invasive species?  Incomplete reversibility of mid-winter deacclimation in emerald ash borer.  Biological Invasions 14: 115-125.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2012) Threshold temperatures mediate the impact of reduced snow cover on overwintering freeze tolerant caterpillars.  Naturwissenschaften 99: 33-41.


Zhang, J., Marshall, K.E., Westwood, J.T., Clark, M.S. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) Divergent transcriptomic responses to repeated and single cold exposures in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 4021-4029.

Ransberry, V.E., MacMillan, H.A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011). The relationship between chill-coma onset and recovery at the extremes of the thermal window of Drosophila melanogaster.  Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 84: 553-559.

Williams, C.M., Thomas, R.H., MacMillan, H.A., Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011)  Triacylglyceride measurement in small quantities of homogenised insect tissue: comparisons and caveats.  Journal of Insect Physiology 57: 1602-1613.

Bokhorst, S., Huiskes, A., Convey, P., Sinclair, B.J., Lebouvier, M., Van de Vijver, B., & Wall, D.H.  (2011) Passive warming methods in Antarctica: implications for climate change studies.  Polar Biology 34: 1421-1435.

Nyamukondiwa, C., Terblanche, J.S., Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) Basal cold- but not heat-tolerance constrains plasticity among Drosophila species (Diptera: Drosophilidae).  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24: 1927-1938.

Sobek, S., Rajamohan, A., Dillon, D., Cumming, R.C. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) High temperature tolerance and thermal plasticity in emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  Agricultural and Forest Entomology 13:  333-340.

Boardman, L., Terblanche, J.S. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) Transmembrane ion distribution during recovery from freezing in the woolly bear caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).  Journal of Insect Physiology. 57: 1154-1162.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J.  (2011) The sublethal effects of repeated freezing in the woolly bear caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabellaJournal of Experimental Biology 214: 1205-1212. Featured on the Promega Connections Blog.

Sinclair, B.J.,  Bretman, A, Tregenza, T., Tomkins, J.L. & Hosken, D.J. (2011) Metabolic rate does not decrease with starvation in Gryllus bimaculatus when changing fuel use is taken into account.  Physiological Entomology 36: 84-89.

MacMillan, H.A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011).  The role of the gut in insect chilling-injury: cold-induced disruption of osmoregulation in the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus.  Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 726-734.

Strachan, L.A., Tarnowski-Garner, H.E., Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) The evolution of cold tolerance in Drosophila larvae.  Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 84: 43-53.  Download supplementary material. Recommended  on Faculty of 1000

Crosthwaite, J.C., Sobek, S., Lyons, D.B., Bernards, M.A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  Journal of Insect Physiology 57: 166-173.

MacAlpine, J.L.P., Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) The effects of CO2 and chronic cold exposure on fecundity of female Drosophila melanogaster.  Journal of Insect Physiology 57: 35-37.

MacMillan, H.A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2011) Mechanisms underlying insect chill-coma.  Journal of Insect Physiology 57: 12-20.

Lalouette, L., Williams, C.M., Hervant, F., Sinclair, B.J., Renault, D. (2011) Metabolic rate and oxidative stress in insects exposed to low temperature thermal fluctuations.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 158: 229-234.


Bazinet, A.L., Marshall, K.E., MacMillan, H.A., Williams, C.M. & Sinclair, B.J. (2010) Rapid changes in desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster are facilitated by changes in cuticular permeability.  Journal of Insect Physiology 56: 2006-2012.

Chown, S.L. & Sinclair, B. J. (2010).  The Macrophysiology of insect thermal limits.  Pp. 191-223 In: Denlinger, D.L. and Lee, R.E., eds.  Insect Low Temperature Biology. Cambridge University Press.

Marshall, K.E. & Sinclair, B.J. (2010) Repeated stress exposure results in a survival-reproduction tradeoff in Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277: 963-969.

Williams, C.M., Pelini, S.L., Hellmann, J.J. & Sinclair, B.J. (2010) Intra-individual variation allows an explicit test of the hygric hypothesis for discontinuous gas exchange in insects.  Biology Letters 6: 274-277.

Sinclair, B.J. & Renault, D. (2010) Intracellular ice formation in insects: Unresolved after 50 years?  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 155: 14-18.


Sinclair, B.J., Gibbs, A.G., Lee, W.-K., Rajamohan, A., Roberts, S.P. & Socha, J.J. (2009).  Syncrotron x-ray visualisation of ice formation in insects during lethal and non-lethal freezing.  PLoS ONE 4: e8259.

Pelini, S.L., Dzurisin, J.D.K., Prior, K.M., Williams, C.M., Marsico, T.D., Sinclair, B.J. & Hellmann, J.J. (2009) Translocation experiments with butterflies reveal limits to enhancement of poleward populations under climate change.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 11160-11165.  Recommended on Faculty of 1000

Rajamohan, A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2009) Hardening trumps acclimation in improving cold tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.  Physiological Entomology 34: 217-223.

Yeates, G.W., Scott, M.B., Chown, S.L. & Sinclair, B.J. (2009) Changes in soil nematode populations indicate an annual life cycle at Cape Hallett, Antarctica.  Pedobiologia 52: 375-386.

MacMillan, H.A., Guglielmo, G.G. & Sinclair, B.J. (2009)  Membrane remodeling and glucose in Drosophila melanogaster: A test of rapid cold-hardening and chilling tolerance hypotheses.  Journal of Insect Physiology 55: 243-249.

MacMillan, H.A., Walsh, J.P. & Sinclair, B.J. (2009) The effects of selection for cold tolerance on cross tolerance to other environmental stressors in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. Insect Science 16: 263-276.


Chown, S.L., Sørensen, J.G. and Sinclair, B.J. (2008) Physiological variation and phenotypic plasticity – A response to Hawes and Bale. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 3353-3357.

Scott, M.B., Dickinson, K.J.M., Barratt, B.I.P. & Sinclair, B.J. (2008) Temperature and moisture trends in non-sorted earth hummocks and stripes on the Old Man Range, New Zealand: Implications for mechanisms of maintenance.  Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 19: 305-314.

Chown, S.L., Sinclair, B.J. & Jansen van Vuuren, B.J. (2008) DNA barcoding and the documentation of alien species establishment on sub-Antarctic Marion Island.  Polar Biology31: 651-655.

Rajamohan, A. & Sinclair, B.J. (2008) Short term hardening effects on survival of acute and chronic cold exposure by Drosophila melanogaster larvae.  Journal of Insect Physiology 54: 708-718. Online data for this paper available here.

Sinclair, B.J . & Rajamohan, A. (2008) Slow and stepped re-warming after acute low temperature exposure do not improve survival of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.  The Canadian Entomologist 140: 306-311.

Sinclair, B.J., Nelson, S., Nilson, T. L., Roberts, S.P. & Gibbs, A.G.  (2007) The effect of selection for desiccation resistance on cold tolerance of Drosophila melanogasterPhysiological Entomology 32: 322-327.

Sinclair, B.J., Gibbs, A.G. & Roberts, S.P. (2007) Gene transcription during exposure to, and recovery from, cold and desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogasterInsect Molecular Biology 16: 435-443.

Nilson, T.L., Sinclair, B.J. & Roberts, S.P. (2006) The effects of carbon dioxide anesthesia and anoxia on rapid cold-hardening and chill coma recovery in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Insect Physiology 52: 1027-1033.

Sinclair, B.J. & Stevens, M.I. (2006) Terrestrial microarthropods of Victoria Land and Queen Maud Mountains, Antarctica: implications of climate change.  Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38: 3158-3170.

Deere, J.A., Sinclair, B.J., Marshall, D.J. & Chown, S.L. (2006) Phenotypic plasticity of thermal tolerances in five oribatid mite species from sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Journal of Insect Physiology 52: 693-700.

Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2006) Caterpillars benefit from thermal ecosystem engineering by Wandering Albatrosses on sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Biology Letters 2: 51-54.

Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2006) Rapid cold-hardening in a Karoo beetle, Afrinus sp. Physiological Entomology 31: 98-101.

Sinclair, B.J., Scott, M.B., Klok, C.J., Terblanche, J.S., Marshall, D.J., Reyers, B. & Chown, S.L.  (2006) Determinants of terrestrial arthropod community composition at Cape Hallett, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 18: 303-312.

Sinclair, B.J. & Stevens, M.I. (2006) Terrestrial microarthropods of Victoria Land and Queen Maud Mountains, Antarctica: implications of climate change.  Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38: 3158-3170.

Sinclair, B.J., Terblanche, J.S., Scott, M.B., Blatch, G., Klok, C.J. & Chown, S.L. (2006) Environmental physiology of three species ofspringtail at Cape Hallett, North Victoria Land, Antarctica. Journal of Insect Physiology 52: 29-50.


Parr, C.L., Sinclair, B.J., Anderson, A.N., Gaston, K.J. & Chown, S.L. (2005) Constraint and competition in assemblages: across-continental and modelling approach for ants.  American Naturalist 165: 481-494.

Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2005) Deleterious effects of repeated cold exposure in a sub-Antarctic caterpillar.  Journal of Experimental Biology 208: 869-879.

Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2005) Climatic variability and hemispheric differences in insect cold tolerance: Support from southern Africa. Functional Ecology 19: 214-221.

Sinclair, B.J. & Roberts, S.P.  (2005) Acclimation, shock and hardening in the cold. Journal of Thermal Biology 30: 557-562.

Terblanche, J.S., Sinclair, B.J., Klok, C.J., McFarlane, M.L. & Chown, S.L. (2005) The effects of acclimation on thermal tolerance, desiccation resistance and metabolic rate in Chirodica chalcoptera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 51: 1013-1023.


Chown, S.L., Sinclair, B.J., Leinaas, H.P. & Gaston, K.J. (2004) Hemispheric asymmetries in biodiversity – A serious matter for ecology.  PLoS Biology  2: 1701-1707.

Klok, C. J., Sinclair, B. J. & Chown, S.L. (2004) Upper thermal tolerance and oxygen-limitation in terrestrial arthropods. Journal of Experimental Biology 207: 2361-2370.

Nondula, N., Marshall, D.J., Baxter, R., Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2004) Life history and osmoregulatory ability of Telmatogeton amphibius (Chironomidae) at Marion Island.  Polar Biology 27: 629-635.

Sinclair, B.J., Klok, C.J & Chown, S.L. (2004) Metabolism of the sub-Antarctic caterpillar Pringleophaga marioni during cooling, freezing and thawing. Journal of Experimental Biology 207: 1287-1294. (Featured article)

Sinclair, B.J., Marshall, D.J., Singh, S., & Chown, S.L. (2004) Cold tolerance of Littorinidae from Southern Africa: Intertidal snails are not constrained to freeze tolerance. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 174: 617-624.

Williams, C.M., Poulin, R. & Sinclair, B.J. (2004) Increased haemolymph osmolality suggests a new route for behavioural manipulation of Talorchestia quoyana (Amphipoda: Talitridae) by its mermithid parasite. Functional Ecology 18: 685-691.


Sinclair, B.J., Klok, C.J., Scott, M.B., Terblanche, J.S. & Chown, S.L. (2003) Diurnal variation in supercooling points of three species of Collembola from Cape Hallett, Antarctica. Journal of Insect Physiology 49: 1049-1061.

Sinclair, B.J., Vernon, P., Klok, C.J. & Chown, S.L. (2003) Insects at Low Temperatures: An Ecological Perspective.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18: 257-262.

Sinclair, B.J., Addo-Bediako, A. & Chown, S.L. (2003) Climatic variability and the evolution of insect freeze tolerance. Biological Reviews 78: 181-195.

Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2003)  Rapid cold hardening responses to high temperature and desiccation, but not to low temperature in the freeze tolerant sub-Antarctic caterpillar Pringleophaga marioni (Lepidoptera, Tineidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 49: 45-52.


Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. (2002) Haemolymph osmolality and thermal hysteresis activity in 17 species of arthropods from sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Polar Biology 25: 928-933.

Sinclair, B.J. (2002)  Effects of increased temperatures simulating climate change on terrestrial invertebrates on Ross Island, Antarctica.  Pedobiologia 46: 150-160.

Sjursen, H. & Sinclair, B.J. (2002) On the cold hardiness of Stereotydeus mollis (Acari: Prostigmata) from Ross Island, Antarctica. Pedobiologia 46: 188-195.


Sinclair, B.J.  (2001) Biologically relevant environmental data: Macros to make the most of microclimate recordings.  CryoLetters 22: 125-134.These macros have now been well-superceded by packages in R. I strongly recommend contacting Katie Marshall at the University of Oklahoma (although this paper still has value for other reasons)  .

Sinclair, B.J.  (2001)  Field Ecology of Freeze-Tolerance: Interannual variation in cooling rates, freeze-thaw and thermal stress in the microhabitat of the alpine cockroach Celatoblatta quinquemaculata.   Oikos 93: 286-293.

Sinclair, B.J.  (2001) On the distribution of Terrestrial invertebrates at Cape Bird, Ross Island, Antarctica.  Polar Biology 24: 394-400.

Sinclair, B.J., Lord, J.M. & Thompson, C.M. (2001) Microhabitat selection and seasonality of alpine invertebrates. Pedobiologia 45: 107-120.

Sinclair, B.J. & Sjursen, H. (2001) Cold tolerance of the Antarctic springtail Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni (Collembola: Hypogastruridae).  Antarctic Science 13: 271-279.

Sinclair, B.J. & Sjursen, H.  (2001) Terrestrial invertebrate abundance and habitat in Keble Valley, Ross Island, Antarctica. Pedobiologia 45: 134-145.


Sinclair, B.J.  (2000) Water relations of the freeze-tolerant New Zealand alpine cockroach Celatoblatta quinquemaculata (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).  Journal of Insect Physiology 46: 869-876.


Sinclair, B.J.  (1999) Insect cold tolerance: How many kinds of frozen?  European Journal of Entomology 96: 157-164.

Sinclair, B.J., Worland, M.R., & Wharton, D.A.  (1999) Ice nucleation and freezing tolerance in New Zealand alpine and lowland weta, Hemideina spp. (Orthoptera; Stenopelmatidae).  Physiological Entomology 24: 56-63.


Block, W., Wharton, D.A. & Sinclair, B.J.  (1998) Cold tolerance of a New Zealand alpine cockroach, Celatoblatta quinquemaculata (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).  Physiological Entomology 23 1-6.


Sinclair, B.J.  (1997) Seasonal variation in freezing tolerance of the New Zealand alpine cockroach Celatoblatta quinquemaculata.  Ecological Entomology 22:  462-467.

Sinclair, B.J. & Wharton, D.A. (1997) Avoidance of Intracellular Freezing by the New Zealand Alpine Weta Hemideina maori (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae).  Journal of Insect Physiology 43: 621-625.

Worland, M.R., Sinclair, B.J. & Wharton, D.A.  (1997) Ice nucleator activity in a New Zealand alpine cockroach Celatoblatta quinquemaculata (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).  Cryo-Letters 18: 327-334.