Robert C Gardner

Robert C Gardner, Ph.D.

Robert C Gardner

Professor Emeritus
Department of Psychology
The University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario N6A 5C2

Data Analysis Calm

In addition to my research on the role of attitudes and motivation in second language acquisition, I have taught the graduate course in research design and statistics in the Department of Psychology since 1961 (see Curriculum Vitae for details). In 1990, I developed an undergraduate course on computer applications in psychological research and began writing chapters that could be used as the textbook. In 2001, my book titled “Psychological Statistics Using SPSS for Windows” was published by Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. This book was subsequently translated into Spanish and published by Prentice Hall as “Estadística para Psicología Usando SPSS para Windows” in 2003. The book was intended for undergraduate students and researchers who wanted an easy to read source for a number of statistical procedures used in research. In 2007, a colleague of mine and I revised it slightly, upgrading the SPSS applications to SPSS14 and adding two chapters. The reference for the coil ring book, which is now produced and sold by The Book store at the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. is:

Gardner, R.C. & Tremblay, P.F. (2007). Essentials of Data analysis: Statistics and Computer Applications

I refer to this web page as DataAnalysisDot Calm because it contains a collection of unpublished manuscripts I wrote in the last few years to explain issues associated with data analysis as well as to provide examples of how to perform specific analyses. It also contains 19 power point lectures (in PDF form) that we used in the 2007/08 course in Research Design. The intent behind these materials is comparable to that underlying the preparation of the undergraduate book, viz., to provide an easy to read source on issues of interest to researchers. For consulting and lecture services, contact


2X2 Analysis of Variance and Multiple Regression: Coding Does Make a Difference (2008)

Analysis of Variance with Categorical and Continuous Factors: Beware the Landmines (2006)

Performing Analyses of Variance with Continuous and Categorical Factors: The Easy Way (2007)

On the Meaning of Regression Coefficients for Categorical and Continuous Variables: Model I and Model II: Effect Coding and Dummy Coding (2006)

Three factor Completely Randomized Design with One Continuous Factor: Using SPSS GLM Univariate (2008)

Hierarchical Linear Modeling: Persons within Groups (2006)

Hierarchical Linear Modeling: Measures within People (2008)

Analysis of Variance, Hierarchical Linear Modeling and You (2007)

Plotting Slopes Following an HLM Analysis (2008)

Using HLM for Presenting Meta Analysis Results (2007)

Completely Randomized Factorial Multivariate Analysis of Variance (2004)

Split-plot Multivariate Analysis of Variance (2004)

Structural Equation Modeling: Confirmatory Factor Analysis (2005)

Structural Equation Modeling: “Causal” Modeling (2005)

What Does the Correlation Coefficient Really Tell Us About the Individual?


Lectures for Psychology 9540 — 2010/2011