Comprehensive List of Lab's Publications


Allen, M. C., Clinchy, M., & Zanette, L. Y. (2022). Fear of predators in free-living wildlife reduces population growth over generations. PNAS, 119, e2122404119. [PDF]

Widén, A., Clinchy, M., Felton, A. M., Hofmeester, T. R., Kuijper, D. P. J., Singh, N. J., Widemo, F., Zanette, L. Y., & Cromsigt, J. P. G. M. (2022). Playbacks of predator vocalizations reduce crop damage by ungulates. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 328, 107853. [PDF]

Crawford, D., Conner, M., Clinchy, M., Zanette, L. Y., & Cherry, M. (2022). Prey tells, large herbivores fear the human ‘super predator’. Oecologia, Early view. [PDF]


Epperly, H. K., Clinchy, M., Zanette, L. Y., & McCleery, R. A. (2021). Fear of large carnivores is tied to ungulate habitat use: evidence from a bifactorial experiment. Scientific Reports, 11, 12979. [PDF]



Zanette, L. Y. & Clinchy, M. (2020). Ecology and neurobiology of fear in free-living wildlife. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 51, 297–318. [PDF] [Media] [Media 2]



Zanette, L. Y., Hobbs, E. C., Witterick, L. E., MacDougall-Shackleton, S. A., & Clinchy, M. (2019). Predator-induced fear causes PTSD-like changes in the brains and behaviour of wild animals. Scientific Reports, 9, 11474. [PDF] [Media] [Media 2] [Media 3]


Suraci, J. P., Clinchy, M., Zanette, L. Y., & Wilmers, C. C. (2019). Fear of humans as apex predators has landscape-scale impacts from mountain lions to mice. Ecology Letters, 22, 1578–1586. [PDF] [Media] [Award Winner]


Suraci, J. P., Smith, J. A., Clinchy, M., Zanette, L. Y., & Wilmers, C. C. (2019). Humans, but not their dogs, displace pumas from their kills: An experimental approach. Scientific Reports, 9, 12214. [PDF]


Zanette, L. Y. & Clinchy M. (2019). Ecology of fear. Current Biology, 29, R301–R316. [PDF]


Santema, P., Valcu, M., Clinchy, M., Zanette, L. Y., & Kempenaers, B. (2019). Effects of predator call playbacks on reproductive success and extrapair paternity in blue tits. Animal Behaviour, 155, 97109. [PDF]


Santema, P., Valcu, M., Clinchy, M., Zanette, L. Y., & Kempenaers, B. (2019). Playback of predator calls inhibits and delays dawn singing in a songbird community.  Behavioral Ecology, 30, 12831288. [PDF]



Dudeck, B. P., Clinchy, M., Allen, M. C., & Zanette, L. Y. (2018). Fear affects parental care which predicts juvenile survival and exacerbates the total cost of fear on demography. Ecology, 99, 127135. [PDF]



Smith, J. A., Suraci, J. P., Clinchy, M., Crawford, A., Roberts, D., Zanette, L. Y., & Wilmers, C. C. (2017). Fear of the human ‘super predator’ reduces feeding time in large carnivores. Proc. R. Soc. B, 284, 20170433. [PDF] [Media] [Media 2]


Walters, B. T., Cheng, T. N. N., Doyle, J., Guglielmo, C. G., Clinchy, M., & Zanette, L. Y. (2017). Too important to tamper with: predation risk affects body mass and escape behaviour but not escape ability. Functional Ecology, 31, 14051417. [PDF] [Award Nominee]


Zanette, L.Y. & Clinchy, M. (2017). Predator–prey interactions: integrating fear effects. In, Call, J., Burghardt, G.M., Pepperberg, I.M., Snowdon, C.T., Zentall, T. (Eds.), APA handbook of comparative psychology: Basic concepts, methods, neural substrate, and behavior (pp. 815831). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. [PDF]


Suraci, J. P., Clinchy, M., Roberts, D. J., & Zanette, L. Y. (2017). Eavesdropping in solitary large carnivores: Black bears advance and vocalize toward cougar playbacks. Ethology, 123, 593599. [PDF]


Suraci, J. P., Clinchy, M., & Zanette, L. Y. (2017). Do large carnivores and mesocarnivores have redundant impacts on intertidal prey? PLoS ONE, 12, e0170255. [PDF]

Suraci, J. P., Roberts, D. J., Clinchy, M., & Zanette, L. Y. (2017). Fearlessness towards extirpated large carnivores may exacerbate the impacts of naïve mesocarnivores. Behavioral Ecology, 28, 439447. [PDF]

Suraci, J. P., Clinchy, M., Mugerwa, B., Delsey, M., Macdonald, D. W., Smith, J. A., Wilmers, C. C., & Zanette, L. Y. (2017). A new Automated Behavioural Response system to integrate playback experiments into camera trap studies. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 8, 957964. [PDF]



Clinchy, M., Zanette, L. Y., Roberts, D., Suraci, J. P., Buesching, C. D., Newman, C., & Macdonald, D. W. (2016). Fear of the human “super predator” far exceeds the fear of large carnivores in a model mesocarnivore. Behavioral Ecology, 27, 18261832. [PDF] [Media]


Suraci, J. P., Clinchy, M., Dill, L. M., Roberts, D., & Zanette, L. Y. (2016). Fear of large carnivores causes a trophic cascade. Nature Communications, 7, 10698. [PDF] [Media] [Media 2]


Wang, X., Zanette, L. Y., & Zou, X. (2016). Modelling the fear effect in predator–prey interactions. Journal of Mathematical Biology, 73, 11791204. [PDF]


Zanette, L. Y., & Clinchy, M. (2016). Fear of predators as an ecosystem service. PeerJ Preprints. 4, e2353v1. [PDF]



Swan, D. C., Zanette, L. Y., & Clinchy, M. (2015). Brood parasites manipulate their hosts: experimental evidence for the farming hypothesis. Animal Behaviour, 105, 2935. [PDF]


Zanette, L. Y., & Sih, A. (2015). Gordon Research Conference on Predator–Prey Interactions: from genes, to ecosystems to human mental health. The Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 96, 165173. [PDF]


Suraci, J. P., Clinchy, M., Zanette, L. Y., Currie, C. M., & Dill, L. M. (2014). Mammalian mesopredators on islands directly impact both terrestrial and marine communities. Oecologia, 176, 10871100. [PDF]


Zanette, L. Y., Clinchy, M., & Suraci, J. P. (2014). Diagnosing predation risk effects on demography: can measuring physiology provide the means? Oecologia, 176, 637651. [PDF]



Clinchy, M., Sheriff, M. J., & Zanette, L. Y. (2013). Predator‐induced stress and the ecology of fear. Functional Ecology, 27, 5665. [PDF]


Decaire, R., Zanette, L. Y., & Clinchy, M. (2013). Brood parasitism causes female‐biased host nestling mortality regardless of parasite species. Ibis, 155, 367376. [PDF]


Newman, A. E. M., Zanette, L. Y., Clinchy, M., Goodenough, N., & Soma, K. K. (2013). Stress in the wild: chronic predator pressure and acute restraint affect plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels in a songbird. Stress, 16, 363367. [PDF]


Zanette, L. Y., Hobson, K. A., Clinchy, M., Travers, M., & Williams, T. D. (2013). Food use is affected by the experience of nest predation: implications for indirect predator effects on clutch size. Oecologia, 172, 10311039. [PDF]

2012 - 1990


Zanette, L. Y., Clinchy, M., Leonard, M. L., Horn, A. G., Haydon, D. T., & Hampson, E. (2012). Brood‐parasite‐induced female‐biased mortality affects songbird demography: negative implications for conservation. Oikos, 121, 14931500. [PDF]


Clinchy, M., Schulkin, J., Zanette, L. Y., Sheriff, M. J., McGowan, P. O., & Boonstra, R. (2011). The neurological ecology of fear: insights neuroscientists and ecologists have to offer one another. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 21. [PDF]


Clinchy, M., Zanette, L. Y., Charlier, T. D., Newman, A. E., Schmidt, K. L., Boonstra, R., & Soma, K. K. (2011). Multiple measures elucidate glucocorticoid responses to environmental variation in predation threat. Oecologia, 166, 607614. [PDF]


MacDougall-Shackleton, E. A., Clinchy, M., Zanette, L. Y., & Neff, B. D. (2011). Songbird genetic diversity is lower in anthropogenically versus naturally fragmented landscapes. Conservation Genetics, 12, 11951203. [PDF]


Zanette, L. Y., White, A. F., Allen, M. C., & Clinchy, M. (2011). Perceived predation risk reduces the number of offspring songbirds produce per year. Science, 334, 13981401. [PDF] [Media] [Media 2] [Media 3]


Travers, M., Clinchy, M., Zanette, L., Boonstra, R., & Williams, T. D. (2010). Indirect predator effects on clutch size and the cost of egg production. Ecology Letters, 13, 980988. [PDF] [Media]


Zanette, L., & Clinchy, M. (2010). Food supplementation leads to bottom‐up and top‐down food–host–parasite interactions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 79, 11721180. [PDF]


Zanette, L., Clinchy, M., & Sung, H.-C. (2009). Food-supplementing parents reduces their sons' song repertoire size. Proc. R. Soc. B, 276, 28552860. [PDF] [Media]


Pagnucco, K., Zanette, L., Clinchy, M., & Leonard, M. L. (2008). Sheep in wolf's clothing: host nestling vocalizations resemble their cowbird competitor's. Proc. R. Soc. B., 275, 10611065. [PDF] [Media]


Kempster, B., Zanette, L., Longstaffe, F. J., MacDougall-Shackleton, S. A., Wingfield, J. C., & Clinchy, M. (2007). Do stable isotopes reflect nutritional stress? Results from a laboratory experiment on song sparrows. Oecologia, 151, 365371. [PDF]


Pfaff, J. A., Zanette, L., MacDougall-Shackleton, S. A., & MacDougall-Shackleton, E. A. (2007). Song repertoire size varies with HVC volume and is indicative of male quality in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Proc. R. Soc. B., 274, 20352040. [PDF] [Media]


Zanette, L., Haydon, D. T., Smith, J. N., Taitt, M. J., & Clinchy, M. (2007). Reassessing the cowbird threat. The Auk, 124, 210223. [PDF]


MacDonald, I. F., Kempster, B., Zanette, L., & MacDougall-Shackleton, S. A. (2006). Early nutritional stress impairs development of a song-control brain region in both male and female juvenile song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at the onset of song learning. Proc. R. Soc. B, 273, 25592564. [PDF] [Media]


Rastogi, A. D., Zanette, L., & Clinchy, M. (2006). Food availability affects diurnal nest predation and adult antipredator behaviour in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia. Animal Behaviour, 72, 933940. [PDF]


Zanette, L., Clinchy, M., & Smith, J. N. (2006). Food and predators affect egg production in song sparrows. Ecology, 87, 24592467. [PDF]


Zanette, L., Clinchy, M., & Smith, J. N. (2006). Combined food and predator effects on songbird nest survival and annual reproductive success: results from a bi-factorial experiment. Oecologia, 147, 632640. [PDF]


Zanette, L., MacDougall-Shakleton, E., Clinchy, M., & Smith, J. N. (2005). Brown‐headed cowbirds skew host offspring sex ratios. Ecology, 86, 815820. [PDF] [Media]


Clinchy, M., Taylor, A. C., Zanette, L. Y., Krebs, C. J., & Jarman, P. J. (2004). Body size, age and paternity in common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). Molecular Ecology, 13, 195202. [PDF]


Clinchy, M., Zanette, L., Boonstra, R., Wingfield, J. C., & Smith, J. N. (2004). Balancing food and predator pressure induces chronic stress in songbirds. Proc. R. Soc. B., 271, 24732479. [PDF] [Media]


Smith, J. N., Taitt, M. J., Zanette, L., & Myers-Smith, I. H. (2003). How do Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) cause nest failures in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia)? A removal experiment. The Auk, 120, 772783. [PDF]


Zanette, L., Smith, J. N., van Oort, H., & Clinchy, M. (2003). Synergistic effects of food and predators on annual reproductive success in song sparrows. Proc. R. Soc. B, 270, 799803. [PDF]


Smith, J. N., Taitt, M. J., & Zanette, L. (2002). Removing Brown-headed cowbirds increases seasonal fecundity and population growth in song sparrows. Ecology, 83, 30373047. [PDF]

Zanette, L. (2002). What do artificial nests tells us about nest predation? Biological Conservation, 103, 323329. [PDF]

Clinchy, M., Haydon, D. T., & Smith, A. T. (2002). Pattern does not equal process: What does patch occupancy really tell us about metapopulation dynamics? The American Naturalist, 159, 351362. [PDF]

Clinchy, M., Krebs, C. J., & Jarman, P. J. (2001). Dispersal sinks and handling effects: Interpreting the role of immigration in common brushtail possum populations. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70, 515–526. [PDF]


Zanette, L. (2001). Indicators of habitat quality and the reproductive output of a forest songbird in small and large fragments. Journal of Avian Biology, 32, 3846. [PDF]


Zanette, L. (2000). Fragment size and the demography of an area‐sensitive songbird. Journal of Animal Ecology, 69, 458470. [PDF]


Zanette, L., Doyle, P., & Trémont, S. M. (2000). Food shortage in small fragments: evidence from an area‐sensitive passerine. Ecology, 81, 16541666. [PDF]


Zanette, L., & Jenkins, B. (2000). Nesting success and nest predators in forest fragments: a study using real and artificial nests. The Auk, 117, 445454. [PDF]


Leonard, M. L., & Zanette, L. (1998). Female mate choice and male behaviour in domestic fowl. Animal Behaviour, 56, 10991105. [PDF]


Zanette, L. Y. (1997). Predation of an eastern yellow robin nest by a small bird, the brown-headed honeyeater. Australian Field Ornithology, 17. [PDF]

Clinchy, M. (1997). Does immigration “rescue” populations from extinction? Implications regarding movement corridors and the conservation of mammals. Oikos, 80, 618622. [PDF].


Leonard, M. L., Zanette, L., & Clinchy, M. (1996). The effect of early exposure to the opposite sex on mate choice in white leghorn chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 48, 1523. [PDF]


Herz, R. S., Zanette, L., & Sherry, D. F. (1994). Spatial cues for cache retrieval by black-capped chickadees. Animal Behaviour, 48, 343351. [PDF]


Zanette, L., & Ratcliffe, L. M. (1994). Social rank influences conspicuous behaviour of black-capped chickadees, Parus atricapillus. Animal Behaviour, 48, 119127. [PDF]

Clinchy, M., & Barker, I. K. (1994). Effects of parasitic infections on clutch size of lesser snow geese from a northern breeding colony. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 72, 541–544. [PDF]

Clinchy, M., & Barker, I. K. (1994). Dynamics of parasitic infections at four sites within lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) from the breeding colony at La Pérouse Bay, Manitoba, Canada. The Journal of Parasitology, 80, 663. [PDF]

Leonard, M. L., Zanette, L. Y., & Fairfull, R. W. (1993). Early exposure to females affects interactions between male white leghorn chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 36, 2938. [PDF]


Leonard, M. L., Zanette, L. Y., Thompson, B. K., & Fairfull, R. W. (1993). Early exposure to the opposite sex affects mating behaviour in white leghorn chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 37, 5767. [PDF]

Giraldeau, L. A., Hogan, J. A., & Clinchy, M. (1990). The payoffs to producing and scrounging: What happens when patches are divisible? Ethology, 85, 132–146. [PDF]

Highlighted News

New PNAS paper [PDF]
Fear of predators in free-living wildlife reduces population growth over generations

Fear itself can halve wildlife populations in 5 years or less!

We report experimentally demonstrating for the first time in any free-living wild animal that the fear predators inspire can itself reduce prey population growth rates. Fear itself caused cumulative, compounding adverse effects on fecundity and every component of offspring survival, reducing the number of young reaching adulthood by 53%. Moreover, these adverse effects extended to those reaching adulthood showing evidence of impaired brain development likely to shorten their survival during adulthood – representing a transgenerational impact reducing population growth over generations.