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Resources in Research Design, Measurement, and Statistical Analysis

Research Interests

Paul F.Tremblay copyright

Quantitative Methods and Personality Lab. We are interested in the methods themselves—the measurement, design, and statistical modeling tools used in psychology and related disciplines. We focus on the measurement of individual differences in personality and mental health and projects that support construct validation.

In measurement, we are interested in exploring the different ways that latent variables are conceptualized – for example, the distinction between reflective and formative constructs, and alternative conceptualizations such as mixture models. We have started to compare SEM vs. IRT approaches to quantifying measurement invariance across groups and longitudinally.

At the design level, we work with several colleagues who study change, specifically variability of individual trajectories of change and day-to-day within individual covariation using diary studies. We are using meta-analysis to investigate relations between personality and mental health variables, recognizing the value and need for more synthesis in our fields.

In statistical modeling, we use a mix of SEM and MLM procedures in longitudinal studies and simulation studies for understanding complex relations and standard errors prior to testing the models with real data, or for sample size and power estimation.

Much of our work consists of collaborations with other researchers and graduate students in psychology and various other areas such as nursing, education, kinesiology, business, music and health sciences, and research centers such as First Episode of Mood and Anxiety Program (FEMAP) in London ON and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)

Specific content areas of interest in personality include trait theory in general and individual difference variables related to academic motivation, human aggression, alcohol consumption patterns, and depressive symptoms.

Email me to inquire about graduate or undergraduate studies in any of these areas.

Graduate Students

Carolyna Patryluk (Doctoral candidate)

C. Patryluk copyrightCarolina is co-supervised by Dr. Paul F. Tremblay and Dr. Rachel M. Calogero. Carolina has proficient experience in research design, implementation, and methodology, both quantitative and qualitative. She is fascinated by finding new ways of assessing complex phenomena, including suicide, emotions, and self-awareness. She is currently exploring the roles of self-awareness and critical self-regard in suicidality using SEM. She is also investigating mixture models to assess underlying profiles of suicide risk.

Clara Stafford (Doctoral candidate)

C. Stafford copyrightClara is a graduate trainee in the Social, Personality and Developmental Psychology area at Western University. Her research interests include advanced measurement issues and advanced statistical modeling. Clara is a passionate programmer and has extensive experience in statistical inquiry and research design and methodology. Consequently, she has taught statistics workshops at Western University, using both R and SPSS. Link to her website

Parisa Chavoshi (MSc first year)

P. Chavoshi copyrightParisa is interested in individual differences with an emphasis on personality traits. She is also interested in how individual differences influence the development of psychopathology across the life span.


Jessica Padgett (Completed MSc)

J. Padgett copyrightJessica recently completed her Masters degree (July 2017) and is continuing her doctoral studies in Psychology at York University. Her Master's thesis consisted of the development of a new multidimensional measure of masculinity. webpage

Publications by Topics

Google Scholar Page ResearchGate Page.

A recent report on a COVID-19 survey conducted by the Royal Society of Canada

Adams T. L., & Tremblay, P. F. (2020). Harsh Realities and New Opportunities: Royal Society of Canada Members on the Impact of COVID-19 on Canadian Society link

Psychometric, Personality Assessment, & Research Methods

Boamah, S. A., & Tremblay, P. F. (2019). Examining the factor structure of the MLQ transactional and transformational leadership dimensions in nursing context. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 41, 743-761.

Dave, H. P., Mesarosova, K., Siegling, A. B., Tremblay, P. F., & Saklofske, D. H. (2019). Assessing locus of control in airline pilots: validation of a self-report measure. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 9, 24-30.

Mesarosova, K., Siegling, A. B., Plouffe, R. A., Saklofske, D. H., Smith, M. M., & Tremblay, P. F. (2019). Personality measurement and profile in a European sample of civil airline pilots. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35, 791-800.

Ryan, B. L, Bell Brown, J., Tremblay, P. F., & Stewart, M. (2019). Measuring Patients’ Perceptions of Health Care Encounters: Examining the Factor Structure of the Revised Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness (PPPC-R) Questionnaire. Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews, 6, 192-202.

Feher, A., & Tremblay, P. F. (2018). A Multilevel modeling study of the influence of relationship enhancing traits and individualism on satisfaction with life across nations. Acción Psicológica, 15, 15-26.

Hamad, E. O., AlHadi, A. N., Tremblay, P. F., Savundranayagam, M. Y., Kinsella, E. A., Holmes, J. D., Lee, C. J., & Johnson, A. M. (2018). Reconstruction of a caregiver burden scale: Exploratory and content analyses to identify culturally sensitive items in Saudi Arabia. Canadian Journal on Aging, 37, 218-233.

Lau, C., Stewart, S. L., Saklofske, D. H., Tremblay, P. F., & Hirdes, J. (2018). Psychometric Evaluation of the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health Disruptive/Aggression Behaviour Scale (DABS) and Hyperactive/Distraction Scale (HDS). Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 49, 279-289.

Lau, C., Stewart, S. L., Sarmiento, C., Saklofske, D. H., & Tremblay, P. F. (2018). Who is at risk for problematic video gaming? Risk factors in problematic video gaming in Canadian clinically referred children and adolescents. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. An International, Peer-Reviewed Open Access Journal, 2 ,19.

Tremblay, P. F. (in press). Temperament, personality correlates of. In B. J. Carducci (Editor-in-Chief) & A. Di Fabio, D. H. Saklofske, & C. Stough (Vol. Eds.), Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of personality and individual differences: Vol. III. Personality processes and individual differences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

MacLeod, M. A., George, J., Tremblay, P. F., Elton-Marshall, T., DeWit, D., Graham, K., & Wells, S. (2017). Dimensionality of the PTSD Checklist in a Canadian Aboriginal sample. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 25, 4-21.

Plouffe, R. A., & Tremblay, P. F. (2017). The effect of income on life satisfaction: Does religiosity play a role? Personality and Individual Differences, 109, 67-71.

Snowshoe, A., Crooks, C., Tremblay, P. F., & Hinson, R. E. (2017). Cultural connectedness and its relation to mental wellness for First Nations youth. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 38, 67-86.

Di Fabio, A., Saklofske, D., & Tremblay, P. F. (2016). Psychometric properties of the Italian Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (I-TEIQue). Personality and Individual Differences, 96, 198-201.

MacLeod, M. A., Tremblay, P. F., Graham, K., Bernards, S., Rehm, J., & Wells, S. (2016). Psychometric properties and a latent class analysis of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) in a pooled dataset of community samples. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 25, 243-254. DOI 10.1002/mpr.1523

Smith, M., Saklofske, D., Keefer, K., & Tremblay, P. F. (2016). Coping Strategies and Psychological Outcomes: The Moderating Effects of Personal Resiliency. The Journal of Psychology. Interdisciplinary and Applied, 150, 318-332. DOI: 10.1080/00223980.2015.1036828

Snowshoe, A., Crooks, C. V., Tremblay, P. F., Craig, W. M., & Hinson, R. E. (2015). Exploring culture as a resiliency factor in First Nations youth mental health: Development of a conceptual and operational model of cultural connectedness. Psychological Assessment, 27, 249-259.

Wells, S., Tremblay, P. F., Flynn, A., Koren, G., Van Uum, S., Rehm, J., Kennedy, J., & Graham, K. (2014). Stress and mental health correlates of hair cortisol in diverse samples of the general population. Stress, 17, 334-342.

Flynn, A., Tremblay, P. F., Rehm J., & Wells, S. (2013). Feasibility of a Modified Random Walk Door-to-Door Recruitment Strategy for Collecting Social, Epidemiological, and Biological Data in a Canadian Community. The International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research, 2, 7-16.

Gardner, R. C. & Tremblay, P. F. (2006). Essentials of Data Analysis. Theory and Computer Applications. Printed by the University of Western Ontario Book Store.

Jackson, D. N., & Tremblay, P. F. (2002). The six factor personality questionnaire. In B. DeRaad and M. Perugini (Eds.), Big five assessment (pp.353-375). Gottingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber.

Saltstone, R., Skinner, C., & Tremblay, P. F. (2001). Conditional standard error of measurement and personality scale scores: An investigation of classical test theory estimates with four MMPI scales. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 691-698.

Jackson, D. N., Harris, W. G., Ashton, M. C., McCarthy, J. B., & Tremblay, P. F. (2000). How useful are work samples in validational studies? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8, 29-33.

Jackson, D. N., Paunonen, S. V., & Tremblay, P. F. (2000). Six Factor Personality Questionnaire. Manual. Port Huron MI: Sigma Assessment Systems.

Tremblay, P. F. & Gardner, R. C. (1996). On the growth of structural equation modeling in psychological journals. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 3, 93-104.

Drinking Patterns, Consequences, Alcohol-Related Aggression

Wells, S., Flynn, A., Tremblay, P. F., Dumas, T., Miller, P., & Graham, K. (2014). A Model linking masculine norms, alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking and negative drinking consequences. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 75, 510-519.

Dumas, T., Wells, S., Graham, K., & Tremblay, P. F. (2013) Teasing apart the roles of gender and alcohol in drinking consequences using a daily drinking assessment method. Contemporary Drug Problems, 40, 321-349.

Wells, S., Tremblay, P. F., & Graham, K. (2013). Understanding men’s aggression in bars: Development of the Beliefs and Attitudes toward Male Alcohol-Related Aggression (BAMARA) inventory. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37, E260-E270.

Wells, S., Graham, K., Tremblay, P. F., & Reynolds, J. (2011). Measuring young men’s expected effects of alcohol in provoking situations in bars. Contemporary Drug Problems, 38, 281-309.

Wells, S., Graham, K., Tremblay, P. F., & Magyarody, N. (2011). Not just the booze talking. Trait aggression and hypermasculinity distinguish perpetrators from victims of male barroom aggression. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 613-620.

Wells, S., Neighbors, C., Tremblay, P. F., & Graham, K. (2011). Defending girlfriends, buddies and oneself: Injunctive norms and male barroom aggression. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 416-420.

Tremblay, P. F., Graham, K., Wells, S., Harris, R., Pulford, R., & Roberts, S. E. (2010). When do college students drink most during the first academic year? An internet based study of daily and weekly drinking. Journal of American College Health, 58, 401-411.

Wells, S., Graham, K., & Tremblay, P. F. (2009). “Every male in there is your competition”: Young men’s explanations of the role of the drinking setting in male-to-male barroom aggression. Substance Use and Misuse. (Special Issue), 44, 1434-1462.

Mihic L., Wells, S., Graham, K., Tremblay, P. F., & Demers, A. (2009). Situational and person-level motives for drinking and alcohol-related aggression: A multilevel analysis of drinking events in a sample of Canadian university students. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 264-269.

Tremblay, P. F., Graham, K., & Wells, S. (2008). Severity of physical aggression reported by university students: A test of the interaction between trait aggression and alcohol consumption. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 3-9.

Wells, S., Mihic, L., Tremblay, P. F., Graham, K., & Demers, A. (2008). Where, with whom, and how much alcohol is consumed on drinking occasions involving aggression? A multilevel analysis of multiple drinking occasion data in a Canadian national survey of university students. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 32, 522-533.

Wells, S., Graham, K., & Tremblay, P. F. (2007). Beliefs, attitudes, and male-to-male barroom aggression: Development of a theoretical predictive model. Addiction Research & Theory, 15, 575-586.

Tremblay, P. F., Mihic, L., Graham, K., & Jelley, J. (2007). The role of motivation to respond to provocation, the social environment, and trait aggression in alcohol-related aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 389-411.

Graham, K., Tremblay, P. F., Wells, S., Pernanen, K., Purcell, J., & Jelley, J. (2006). Harm, intent and the nature of aggressive behavior of males and females: Measuring aggression in the real world based on observations of barroom behavior. Assessment, 13, 280-296.

See also Newsletter of our longitudinal research


Padgett, J. K., & Tremblay, P. F. (in press). Gender differences in aggression. In B. J. Carducci (Editor-in-Chief) & A. Di Fabio, D. H. Saklofske, & C. Stough (Vol. Eds.), Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of personality and individual differences: Vol. III. Personality processes and individual differences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Tremblay, P. F., & Wheatley, M. J. (in press). Anger. In B. J. Carducci (Editor-in-Chief) & A. Di Fabio, D. H. Saklofske, & C. Stough (Vol. Eds.), Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of personality and individual differences: Vol. III. Personality processes and individual differences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Zarbatany, L., Tremblay, P. F., Ellis, W. E. et al. (in press). The peer clique experiences of victimized children. Merrill Palmer Quarterly.

Graham, K., Bernards, S., Flynn, A., Tremblay, P. F., & Wells, S. (2012). Gender differences in the relationship between depression and physical aggression between intimate partners - Do victim-perpetrator role and aggression severity matter? Violence and Victims, 27, 730-743.

Tremblay, P. F., & Dozois D. J. A. (2009). Another perspective on trait aggressiveness: Overlap with early maladaptive schemas. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 569-574.

Tremblay, P. F., Harris, R., Berman, H., MacQuarrie, B., Hutchinson, G., Smith, M.-A., Braley, S., Jelley, J., & Dearlove, K. (2008). Negative social experiences of university and college students. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 38, 57-75.

Tremblay, P. F., & Ewart, L. A. (2005). The Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire and its relations to values, the Big Five, provoking hypothetical situations, alcohol consumption patterns, and alcohol expectancies. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 337-346.

Tremblay, P. F., & Belchevski, M. (2004). Did the instigator intend to provoke? A key moderator in the relation between trait aggression and aggressive behaviour. Aggressive Behavior, 30, 409-424.

Second Language Learning

Tremblay, P. F. (2020). Quantitative methods in second language learning motivation research: Gardner’s contributions and some new developments. In A. H. Al-Hourie & P. D. MacIntyre (Eds.), Contemporary language motivation theory: 60 years since Gardner and Lambert (1959)(pp. 212-232). Bristol UK: Multilingual Matters.

Tremblay, P. F. (2001). Research in second language learning motivation: Psychometric and research design considerations. In Z. Dornyei, & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition, (pp. 239-255). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.

Gardner, R. C., Masgoret, A.-M., & Tremblay, P. F. (1999). Home background characteristics and second language learning. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 18, 419-437.

Gardner, R. C. & Tremblay, P. F. (1998). Specificity of affective variables and the trait/state conceptualization of motivation in second language acquisition. In R. K. Agnihotri, A. L. Khanna, & I. Sachdev (Eds.), Social psychological perspectives on second language learning. India, New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Gardner, R. C., Tremblay, P. F., & Masgoret, A.-M. (1997). Towards a full model of second language learning: An empirical investigation. The Modern Language Journal, 81, 344-362.

Gardner, R. C., Tremblay, P. F., & Castillo, E. S. (1996). A study of the roles of aptitude, attitude and motivation in second language acquisition: Revisited. In E. S. Castillo (Ed.), Alay sa wika: Essays in honor of Fe T. Otanes on her 67th birthday (pp.101-110). Manila, Philippines: The Linguistic Society of the Philippines.

Tremblay, P. F. & Gardner, R. C. (1995). Expanding the motivation construct in language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 79, 505-518.

Tremblay, P. F., Goldberg, M. P., & Gardner, R. C. (1995). Trait and state motivation and the acquisition of Hebrew vocabulary. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 27, 356-370.

Gardner, R. C., & Tremblay, P. F. (1994). On motivation, research agendas, and theoretical frameworks. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 359-368.

Gardner, R. C., & Tremblay, P. F. (1994). On motivation: Measurement and conceptual considerations. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 524-527.

Other Topics

Tremblay, P. F. (in press). Religiosity. In B. J. Carducci (Editor-in-Chief) & A. Di Fabio, D. H. Saklofske, & C. Stough (Vol. Eds.), Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of personality and individual differences: Vol. III. Personality processes and individual differences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Tremblay, P. F., & Zarbatany, L. (in press). Self-Control. In B. J. Carducci (Editor-in-Chief) & A. Di Fabio, D. H. Saklofske, & C. Stough (Vol. Eds.), Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of personality and individual differences: Vol. III. Personality processes and individual differences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Arcaro, J., Tremblay, P. F., Summerhurst, C., Wammes, M., Dash, P., & Osuch, E. (2019). Impact of investing in early intervention for mood and anxiety disorders: The service user’s perspective. Emerging Adulthood, 7, 432-443.

Rodger, S., & Tremblay, P. F. (2003). The effects of a peer mentoring program on academic success among first year university students. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 33, 1-18.

Tremblay, P. F., Gardner, R. C., & Heipel, G. (2000). A model of the relationships among measures of affect, previous achievement, and performance in introductory statistics. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 32, 40-48.

Tremblay, P. F. & King, P. R. (1994). State and trait anxiety, coping and depression among psychiatric inpatients. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 26, 505-519.

Tremblay, P. F., King, P. R., & Baines, G. R. (1994). Clinical and demographic characteristics of voluntary and involuntary psychiatric inpatients. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 297-299.

Turner, R. A., King, P. R., & Tremblay, P. F. (1992). Coping styles and depression among psychiatric outpatients. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 1145-1147.